Independence Day of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Weź udział w bezpłatnych warsztatach tanecznych Step Afrika Camp, 11-15 lipca!

Ambasada USA i Służewski Dom Kultury zapraszają do wzięcia udziału w warsztatach tanecznych Step Afrika Camp! Masz 13-18 lat? Interesujesz się tańcem nowoczesnym? Weź udział w warsztatach, który poprowadzi słynny amerykański zespół Step Afrika! Data 11-15 lipca, Służewski Dom Kultury w Warszawie. Warsztaty są bezpłatne.

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Inauguration du buste de Georges Clemenceau à Varsovie en présence de l’Ambassadeur de France

La décision de placer dans la capitale polonaise la statue de l’ancien président du Conseil avait été prise en avril 2021 par le conseil municipal de Varsovie, à l’initiative de l’Association polonaise des membres de la Légion d’honneur et de l’Ordre national du Mérite. Le buste a été conçu par le sculpteur Bronisław Krzysztof.

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Wizyta ambasadora Wietnamu

Grzegorz Schreiber, marszałek województwa łódzkiego, spotkał się dziś (14 czerwca 2022 roku) z Nguyen Hung, ambasadorem Socjalistycznej Republiki Wietnamu. Tematem spotkania była, między innymi, współpraca gospodarcza między Polską i Wietnamem. Jak podkreślił Nguyen Hung, w Polsce mieszka bardzo dużo Wietnamczyków, a nasz kraj jest najważniejszym partnerem handlowym Wietnamu w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej.

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Independence day of Republic of Djibouti

Djibouti, small strategically located country on the northeast coast of the Horn of Africa. It is situated on the Bab el Mandeb Strait, which lies to the east and separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden. Formerly known as French Somaliland (1896–1967) and the French Territory of the Afars and Issas (1967–77), the country took Djibouti as its name when it gained independence from France on June 27, 1977. Djibouti’s capital, Djibouti city, is built on coral reefs that jut into the southern entrance of the gulf; other major towns are Obock, Tadjoura, Ali Sabieh, Arta, and Dikhil. The country’s Lilliputian aspect belies its regional and geopolitical importance. The capital is the site of a modern deepwater port that serves Indian Ocean and Red Sea traffic and hosts a French naval base. Djibouti city is also the railhead for the only line serving Addis Ababa, the capital of neighbouring Ethiopia. Land - Relief Djibouti is bounded by Eritrea to the north, Ethiopia to the west and southwest, and Somalia to the south. The Gulf of Tadjoura, which opens into the Gulf of Aden, bifurcates the eastern half of the country and supplies much of its 230 miles (370 km) of coastline. The landscape of Djibouti is varied and extreme, ranging from rugged mountains in the north to a series of low desert plains separated by parallel plateaus in the west and south. Its highest peak is Mount Moussa at 6,654 feet (2,028 metres). The lowest point, which is also the lowest in Africa, is the saline Lake Assal, 509 feet (155 metres) below sea level. The country is internationally renowned as a geologic treasure trove. Located at a triple juncture of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and East African rift systems, the country hosts significant seismic and geothermal activity. Slight tremors are frequent, and much of the terrain is littered with basalt from past volcanic activity. In November 1978 the eruption of the Ardoukoba volcano, complete with spectacular lava flows, attracted the attention of volcanologists worldwide. Of particular interest was the tremendous seismic activity that accompanied the eruption and led to the widening by more than a metre of the plates between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Drainage Besides Lake Assal, the other major inland body of water is Lake Abbe, located on Djibouti’s southwestern border with Ethiopia. The country is completely devoid of any permanent above-ground rivers, although some subterranean rivers exist. Climate The often torrid climate varies between two major seasons. The cool season lasts from October to April and typifies a Mediterranean-style climate in which temperatures range from the low 70s to the mid-80s F (low 20s to low 30s C) with low humidity. The hot season lasts from May to September. Temperatures increase as the hot khamsin wind blows off the inland desert, and they range from an average low in the mid-80s F (low 30s C) to a stifling high in the low 110s F (mid-40s C). This time of year is also noted for days in which humidity is at its highest. Among the coolest areas in the country is the Day Forest, which is located at a high elevation; temperatures in the low to mid-50s F (low to mid-10s C) have been recorded. The average annual precipitation is limited and is usually spread over 26 days. Different regions of the country receive varying amounts of precipitation: the coastal regions receive 5 inches (130 mm) of rainfall per annum, while the northern and mountainous portions of the country receive about 15 inches (380 mm). The rainy season lasts between January and March, with the majority of precipitation falling in quick, short bursts. One outcome of this erratic rainfall pattern is periodic flash floods that devastate those areas located at sea level. Plant and animal life Despite Djibouti’s relatively harsh landscape, abundances of flora and fauna abound. In the northern portion of the country, one finds the ancient Day Forest National Park and a variety of tree species, such as jujube, fig, olive, juniper, and momosa. To the south and southwest of the Gulf of Tadjoura, the vegetation is similar to that found in other arid regions of Africa, inclusive of acacia and doum palm trees. Among the types of fauna are a wide variety of bird species, numerous types of antelopes and gazelles, and more limited numbers of carnivores (such as cheetahs) and scavengers (such as hyenas), as well as monkeys, squirrels, and warthogs. Perhaps most spectacular is the extremely rich diversity of marine life found along Djibouti’s coastline and coral reefs, a factor that has made the country a special point of interest for international scuba-diving associations. People - Ethnic groups On the basis of linguistic criteria, the two largest ethnic groups are the Somali and the Afar. Both groups speak related, but not mutually intelligible, eastern Cushitic languages. The Afar (Denakil, or Danakil) speak a language that forms a dialect continuum with Saho. Saho-Afar is usually classified as an Eastern Cushitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. The Afar live in the sparsely populated areas to the west and north of the Gulf of Tadjoura. This region includes parts of several former as well as extant Afar sultanates. The sultans’ roles are now largely ceremonial, and the social divisions within the traditional Afar hierarchy are of diminished importance. The Afar are also found across the border in neighbouring Ethiopia. Their population distribution in the two countries forms a pattern that is somewhat elongated and triangular in shape and is often referred to as the “Afar triangle.” The Somali, who also speak an Eastern Cushitic language, are concentrated in the capital and the southeastern quarter of the country. Their social identity is determined by clan-family membership. More than half the Somali belong to the Issa, whose numbers exceed those of the Afar; the remaining Somali are predominately members of the Gadaboursi and Isaaq clans that migrated from northern Somalia during the 20th century to work on the construction of the Djibouti–Addis Ababa railway and Djibouti city’s port expansion. Djibouti city is home to a long-established community of Yemeni Arabs and houses a sizable contingent of French technical advisers and military personnel. In recent decades these groups have been joined by small but significant numbers of ethnic Ethiopians as well as Greek and Italian expatriates. Language of Djibouti The republic recognizes two official languages: French and Arabic. However, Somali is the most widely spoken language, although it is rarely written and is not taught in the schools. The use of Afar is mostly restricted to Afar areas. Many Djiboutians are multilingual. Fluency in French is particularly important for those with political aspirations. French is the means of instruction in primary and secondary schools, although Arabic is also taught as the first language at both these levels. Religion More than nine-tenths of the population is Muslim; nearly all adhere to the Sunni branch of Islam. Some Christian religions are represented in Djibouti, including Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism. More: Score:

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Independence Day of Republic of Madagascar

Madagascar, island country lying off the southeastern coast of Africa. Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world, after Greenland, New Guinea, and Borneo. Although located some 250 miles (400 km) from the African continent, Madagascar’s population is primarily related not to African peoples but rather to those of Indonesia, more than 3,000 miles (4,800 km) to the east. The Malagasy peoples, moreover, do not consider themselves to be Africans, but, because of the continuing bond with France that resulted from former colonial rule, the island developed political, economic, and cultural links with the French-speaking countries of western Africa. The animal life and vegetation of the island are equally anomalous, differing greatly from that of nearby Africa and being in many respects unique. Although the coastlands have been known to Europeans for more than 400 years and to Arabs for much longer, recent historical development has been more intense and concentrated in the central plateau, which contains the capital city of Antananarivo (formerly Tananarive). Land Madagascar is located in the southwestern Indian Ocean and is separated from the African coast by the 250-mile- (400-km-) wide Mozambique Channel. Relief Madagascar consists of three parallel longitudinal zones—the central plateau, the coastal strip in the east, and the zone of low plateaus and plains in the west. Situated between 2,500 and 4,500 feet (800 and 1,400 metres) above sea level, the plateau has been uplifted and worn down several times and is tilted to the west. Three massifs are more than 8,500 feet (2,600 metres) high. The Tsaratanana region in the north is separated from the rest of the plateau by the Tsaratanana Massif, whose summit, Maromokotro, reaches 9,436 feet (2,876 metres) and is the highest point on the island. Ankaratra Massif in the centre is an enormous volcanic mass whose summit, Tsiafajavona, is 8,671 feet (2,643 metres) high. Ankaratra is a major watershed divide separating three main river basins. Farther south, Andringitra is a vast granite massif north of Tôlan̈aro (Faradofay); it rises to 8,720 feet (2,658 metres) at Boby Peak. The plateau slopes with some regularity toward the extreme southern plain, but its boundaries to the east and west are more abrupt. To the east it descends in a sharp fault, by vertical steps of 1,000 to 2,000 feet (300 to 600 metres). This cliff, which is called the Great Cliff or the Cliff of Angavo, is often impassable and is itself bordered by the Betsimisaraka Escarpment, a second and lower cliff to the east, which overhangs the coastal plain. Behind the scarp face are the remains of ancient lakes, including one called Alaotra. To the south the two steep gradients meet and form the Mahafaly and the Androy plateaus, which overhang the sea in precipitous cliffs. Toward the west the descent is made in a series of steps. However, in places the central plateau is bordered by an impassable escarpment, such as the Cliff of Bongolava in the west-central part of the island. To the extreme north the plateau is bordered by the low belt of the Ambohitra Mountains, which include a series of volcanic craters. The coastal strip has an average width of about 30 miles (50 km). It is a narrow alluvial plain that terminates in a low coastline bordered with lagoons linked together by the Pangalanes (Ampangalana) Canal, which is more than 370 miles (600 km) long. To the south of Farafangana the coast becomes rocky, and in the southeast there occur many little bays. To the northeast is the deep Bay of Antongil (Antongila). The western zone is between 60 and 125 miles (100 and 200 km) wide. Its sedimentary layers slope toward the Mozambique Channel and produce a succession of hills. The inland (eastern) side of these steep hills dominates the hollows formed in the soft sediments of the interior, while the other side descends to the sea in rocky slopes. The coastline is straight, bordered by small dunes and fringed with mangroves. The currents in the Mozambique Channel have favoured the offshore deposit of alluvium and the growth of river deltas. On the northwestern coast there are a number of estuaries and bays. This coast is bordered by coral reefs and volcanic islands, such as Nosy Be (Nossi-Bé), which protects Ampasindava Bay. Drainage The steep eastern face of the plateau is drained by numerous short, torrential rivers, such as the Mandrare, the Mananara, the Faraony, the Ivondro, and the Maningory, which discharge either into the coastal lagoons or directly into the sea over waterfalls and rapids. The more gently sloping western side of the plateau is crossed by longer and larger rivers, including the Onilahy, the Mangoky, the Tsiribihina, and the Betsiboka, which bring huge deposits of fertile alluvium down into the vast plains and many-channeled estuaries; the river mouths, while not completely blocked by this sediment, are studded with numerous sandbanks. There are many lakes of volcanic origin on the island, such as Lake Itasy. Alaotra is the last surviving lake of the eastern slope. Lake Tsimanampetsotsa, near the coast south of Toliara (formerly Tuléar), is a large body of saline water that has no outlet. Soils The central plateau and the eastern coast are mainly composed of gneiss, granite, quartz, and other crystalline rock formations. The gneiss decomposes into red murrum, laterite, and deeper and more fertile red earths, giving Madagascar its colloquial name the Great Red Island. Fertile alluvial soils in the valleys support intensive cultivation. There also are scattered volcanic intrusions that produce fertile but easily erodible soils. Lake Alaotra is a large sedimentary pocket in the central plateau containing some of the island’s most productive farmland. The western third of the island consists entirely of deposits of sedimentary rock, giving rise to soils of medium to low fertility. Climate of Madagascar The hot, wet season extends from November to April and the cooler, drier season from May to October. The climate is governed by the combined effects of the moisture-bearing southeast trade and northwest monsoon winds as they blow across the central plateau. The trade winds, which blow throughout the year, are strongest from May to October. The east coast is to the windward and has a high annual rate of precipitation, reaching nearly 150 inches (3,800 mm) at Maroantsetra on the Bay of Antongil. As the winds cross the plateau, they lose much of their humidity, causing only drizzle and mists on the plateau itself and leaving the west in a dry rain shadow. The southwest in particular is almost desert, with the dryness aggravated by a cold offshore current. The monsoon, bringing rain to the northwest coast of Madagascar and the plateau, is most noticeable during the hot, humid season. The wind blows obliquely onto the west coast, which receives a moderate amount of precipitation annually; the southwest, which is protected, remains arid. Annual precipitation drops from about 80 inches (about 2,000 mm) on the northwestern island of Nosy Be to about 40 inches (1,000 mm) at Maintirano on the west coast to about 14 inches (360 mm) at Toliara in the southwest. The plateau receives moderate levels of precipitation, with about 50 inches (1,200 mm) falling annually at both Antananarivo and Fianarantsoa, which lies about 200 miles (320 km) farther south. July is the coolest month, with mean monthly temperatures around the island ranging from the low 50s F (low 10s C) to the high 70s F (mid-20s C), and December is the hottest month, with temperatures between the low 60s and mid-80s F (mid 10s and high 20s C). Temperatures generally decrease with elevation, being highest on the northwest coast and lowest on the plateau. Tropical cyclones are an important climatic feature. They form far out over the Indian Ocean, especially from December to March, and approach the eastern coast, bringing torrential rains and destructive floods. Plant and animal life Much of the island was once covered with evergreen and deciduous forest, but little now remains except on the eastern escarpment and in scattered pockets in the west. The plateau is particularly denuded and suffers seriously from erosion. The forest has been cut in order to clear rice fields, to obtain fuel and building materials, and to export valuable timber such as ebony, rosewood, and sandalwood. About seven-eighths of the island is covered with prairie grasses and bamboo or small thin trees. There also are screw pines, palms, and reeds on the coasts. In the arid south of the island grow thorn trees, giant cacti, dwarf baobab trees, pachypodium succulents, and other xerophytes (drought-resistant plants) that are peculiar to the island. Because of the island’s isolation, many zoologically primitive primates have survived and evolved into unique forms. About 40 species of lemurs are indigenous to Madagascar. Several unique hedgehoglike insectivores, such as the tenrec, have evolved there, and there are also many kinds of chameleons of varying size. Birds are numerous and include guinea fowl, partridges, pigeons, herons, ibis, flamingos, egrets, cuckoos, Asian robins, and several kinds of birds of prey. There are about 800 species of butterflies, many moths, and a variety of spiders. The only large or dangerous animals are the crocodiles, which occupy the rivers. The snakes, including the do, which is 10 to 13 feet (3 to 4 metres) in length, are harmless. Inland waters contain tilapia (an edible perchlike fish), rainbow trout, and black bass. Marine fish and crustaceans abound on the coasts and in the lagoons, estuaries, and even in some upland streams. They include groupers, giltheads, tuna, sharks, sardines, whitings, crayfish, crabs, shrimps, mussels, and oysters. The coelacanth, referred to as a living fossil and once thought extinct for millions of years, inhabits offshore waters. More … Score:

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Statehood Day of Republic of Slovenia

Slovenia, country in central Europe that was part of Yugoslavia for most of the 20th century. Slovenia is a small but topographically diverse country made up of portions of four major European geographic landscapes—the European Alps, the karstic Dinaric Alps, the Pannonian and Danubian lowlands and hills, and the Mediterranean coast. Easily accessible mountain passes (now superseded by tunnels) through Slovenia’s present-day territory have long served as routes for those crossing the Mediterranean and transalpine regions of Europe. The Slovenes are a South Slavic people with a unique language. For most of its history, Slovenia was largely controlled by the Habsburgs of Austria, who ruled the Holy Roman Empire and its successor states, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary; in addition, coastal portions were held for a time by Venice. As part of Yugoslavia, Slovenia came under communist rule for the bulk of the post-World War II period. With the dissolution of the Yugoslav federation in 1991, a multiparty democratic political system emerged. Slovenia’s economic prosperity in the late 20th century attracted hundreds of thousands of migrants from elsewhere in the Balkans. In the early 21st century, Slovenia integrated economically and politically with western Europe, joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as well as the European Union in 2004. Slovenia’s capital and most important city is Ljubljana. Land Slovenia is bordered by Austria to the north and Hungary to the far northeast. To the east, southeast, and south, Slovenia shares a 416-mile- (670-km-) long border with Croatia. To the southwest Slovenia is adjacent to the Italian port city of Trieste and occupies a portion of the Istrian Peninsula, where it has an important coastline along the Gulf of Venice. Italy’s Friuli-Venezia Giulia region is situated to the west. Slovenia is mostly elevated. Outside the coastal area, its terrain consists largely of karstic plateaus and ridges, magnificently precipitous Alpine peaks, and (between the elevated areas) valleys, basins, and arable or pastorally useful karstic poljes. The only major flat area is in the northeast. Tectonic fault lines cross the country, and Ljubljana suffered a devastating earthquake in 1895. Relief In Slovenia four main physiographic regions can be distinguished. The first is the Alpine region, which takes up about two-fifths of Slovenia’s surface area. In the north and northwest, along the borders with Italy and Austria, are the High Alps, comprising the Kamnik and Savinja, the Karavanke (Karawanken), and the Julian Alps; the latter includes Slovenia’s highest peak, Mount Triglav, at 9,396 feet (2,864 metres). In a vale beneath Triglav lie idyllic Lake Bohinj and Lake Bled. Slightly lower than the High Alps is the subalpine “ridge-and-valley” terrain. The main subalpine range is the Pohorje, located south of the Drava River. The historical name for the central Alpine lands is Gorenjska (Upper Carniola), a name that Slovenes still use. Slovenes refer to the Mea and Mislinja river valleys as Koroška (Carinthia). On Gorenjska’s southern edge is the spacious Ljubljana basin, which contains the capital as well as the industrial city of Kranj. Slovenia’s second major physiographic region, the Kras (Karst), a spur of the lengthy Dinaric Alps in the southwestern part of the country, is dotted with caves and underground rivers, the characteristic features of karst topography (whose term is derived from the name of the region). Although it constitutes one-fourth of Slovenia’s area, the Kras region has only a fraction of the country’s population, which is concentrated between the wooded limestone ridges in dry and blind valleys, hollows, and poljes. Water is scarce in this region. The Suha Krajina is a karstified plateau; the Bela Krajina is a transitional belt that contains plains and points toward the Subpannonia (Pannonian Plain). Most of the region is known to Slovenes by its historical names: Dolenjska (Lower Carniola) and Notranjska (Inner Carniola). Scientific study of karst terrain is a Slovene specialty, research having begun during the 18th century in Habsburg Carniola. The next largest physiographic region (occupying one-fifth of the country) is the fertile Subpannonia; it is located in eastern and northeastern Slovenia and includes the valleys of the Sava, Drava, and Mura rivers. Its basins contain the cities of Maribor (on the Drava) and Celje (on the Savinja River, a tributary of the Sava). Subpannonia corresponds in part to the lower part of the old Austrian duchy of Styria; Slovenes call their portion Štajerska and share some traits with their Austrian neighbours. Beyond a saddle of hills known as the Slovenske Gorice is Prekmurje, a wheat-growing region drained by the Mura River in the extreme northeast of the country. It was ruled by Hungary until 1918; its main town is Murska Sobota. The fourth principal region (occupying barely one-twelfth of Slovenia’s surface) is Primorska, or the Slovene Littoral. It overlaps what were the Habsburg regions of Trieste and Gorizia and is made up of Slovenia’s portion of the Istrian Peninsula, the Adriatic hinterland, and the Soča and Vipava river valleys. The 29-mile (47-km) strip of coast makes up Slovenia’s riviera. The city of Koper (just south of Trieste) is Slovenia’s major port. Drainage Most of Slovenia’s intricate fluvial network is directed toward the Danube River. The Sava originates in the Julian Alps and flows past Ljubljana toward Croatia; its narrow valley serves as a rail conduit to Zagreb, Croatia’s capital, and farther to Belgrade, Serbia’s capital. The Drava enters Slovenia from the Austrian state of Kärnten, and the Mura emerges from the Austrian state of Steiermark; they meet in Croatia and, like the Sava, ultimately reach the Danube. In the west the Soča originates beneath Mount Triglav and, after a precipitous course, reaches the Gulf of Venice in Italian territory. The relatively steep gradients of Slovenia’s topography create fast runoff, which in turn ensures most of Slovenia copious water and hydroelectric resources. On the other hand, it also washes away valuable soil nutrients. Pollution of the rivers remains a problem. Soils Slovenia’s complex geology has created a pedological mosaic. The small, thick Pleistocene cover is acidic and viscid. Permeable thin brown podzols—cambisols and fluvisols—are productive if fertilized, but they cover only about one-tenth of its surface, chiefly to the northeast. The carbonate bedrock underlying much of the country produces thin lithosols suited to forest growth. There are many good alluvial soils (particularly in Subpannonia) as well as bog varieties. Karstic sinkholes and poljes are famous for having terra rossa, a red soil produced by the degradation of the underlying limestone. More … Score:    

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