Turkmenistan - ЦАРИКЦ

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2022 Magic Botswana

I am ready for the most challenging expedition in Botswana. Driving in the remote Botswana in 2022 during the raining season will be a real adventure and I am very excited to do this unique experience. This time I am travelling with my wife, my nephew and few friends. The first part of the adventure will take us to Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) that is known as one of the most difficult routes in the world. After the Kalahari I will proceed with my wife and my nephew to Khwai which is located in the area known as Okavango and then continue with my nephew Max to Kgalagati Transfrontier Park to look for the lions! Let the adventure begin!

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Independence day of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan, Turkmen Türkmenistan, country of Central Asia. It is the second largest state in Central Asia, after Kazakhstan, and is the southernmost of the region’s five republics. After Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan is the least densely populated of the Central Asian states. Much of its waterless expanse is inhospitable to plant and animal life. Except for oases in narrow strips dotted along the foothills of the Kopet-Dag Range and along the Amu Darya, Morghāb, and Tejen rivers, deserts characterize its sunbaked sandy terrain. From 1925 to 1991 Turkmenistan was the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, a constituent (union) republic of the Soviet Union; it declared independence on October 27, 1991. The capital is Ashgabat (Ashkhabad), which lies near the southern border with Iran. Land Turkmenistan is located in the southwest of the Central Asia region. It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Though Turkmenistan is the second largest country in Central Asia in terms of land area, most of the land consists of oases scattered amid otherwise uninhabitable desert. Relief Topographically, four-fifths of Turkmenistan consists of the southern part of the Turan Plain. Mountains and foothills rise mainly in the southern part of the republic, including the Kugitangtau and Kopet-Dag ranges. The Kopet-Dag is geologically young, its instability indicated by intermittent earthquakes of great destructive force. Two broad divisions may be seen throughout Turkmenistan: an oasis region—characterized by adequate water supply, cultivated lands, and developed industry—composed of the Kopet-Dag and other oases; and a desert region occupying nine-tenths of Turkmenistan’s territory, subdivided into western Turkmenistan and the Karakum. The Karakum is one of the world’s largest sand deserts, taking up the entire central part of Turkmenistan and extending northward toward Kazakhstan. Oases The Kopet-Dag oasis stretches along the northern foothills of the Kopet-Dag Range, the slopes of which offer large areas for nonirrigated farming; both the mountains and foothills are also rich in mineral resources. The economic and cultural centre of the oasis is the capital city of Ashgabat. The development of the capital has stimulated industry, turning an agrarian oasis into the industrial-agrarian core of the republic. The Morghāb oasis is famous for its fine-staple cotton, silk, handmade carpets and rugs, and Karakul sheep. The Morghāb River, the lower reaches of which are crossed by the Karakum Canal, can supply more water for irrigation. Mary (formerly Merv) is the centre of the oasis and the surrounding region. Separated from the Morghāb by a stretch of the Karakum, the Tejen oasis formed along the Tejen River. Before the construction of the Karakum Canal, only small areas of wheat, barley, and melons could be cultivated because of the scarcity of water. After the oasis was crossed by the canal, however, and the Hauz-Khan Reservoir built, large areas were irrigated, thus making possible the cultivation of long-staple cotton and the construction of cotton-processing plants. The economic and cultural centre is the town of Tejen. The middle Amu Darya oasis, in contrast to other oases, stretches almost without interruption for hundreds of miles and is almost entirely cultivated. The Amu Darya waters are very rich in silt, an excellent natural fertilizer. Raising of cotton and silkworms has long been widespread in that area, which is also an important producer of kenaf and other fibre crops. The adjoining deserts provide fodder for Karakul sheep. Industries processing agricultural products and mineral raw materials have been developed in the oasis as well. The economic and administrative centre of the oasis and the region is Türkmenabat (Chardzhou), the second largest city and industrial centre in Turkmenistan. The lower Amu Darya oasis lies in the ancient delta of the Amu Darya and was long one of the most important agricultural regions of the republic. The oasis is cut by a dense network of old riverbeds as well as by irrigation channels and ditches beginning in neighbouring Uzbekistan. Reductions in the lower Amu Darya’s flow threaten to impair this oasis’s agricultural output, however. Deserts The desert of western Turkmenistan is an enormous and almost waterless expanse, but its mountainous part, which is an eastern continuation of the Caucasus Mountains, has mineral and fuel resources. The latter’s deposits of oil, rock salt, and common lake salt are of great importance. Western Turkmenistan is one of the most industrially developed regions of the republic, emphasizing oil extraction and refining, chemical and mining industries, and fisheries and fish processing (along the Caspian Sea). The rural population is engaged mostly in raising sheep, goats, and camels. The Karakum and the other featureless deserts are distinguished by the same desert landscape, lack of surface water, exceptionally meagre precipitation, and high summer temperatures. At the same time the desert is a zone of fuel and mineral resources, and its richest pastures can be used year-round for sheep, goats, and camels. Drainage Turkmenistan’s main rivers are the aforementioned Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River), which flows along its northeastern border toward the Aral Sea, and the Tejen, Morghāb (Murgab, or Murgap), and Atrek; there are also numerous small mountain rivers. However, the geographic position of the rivers and the direction of their flow do not coincide with the location of cultivable lands; the most fertile—and still insufficiently used—lands lie chiefly in the south, northeast, and west, whereas the principal rivers run mostly in the east. The Karakum Canal, completed in 1967, is one of the world’s largest irrigation and shipping canals. The water lost from these canals through irrigation and from evaporation in the arid climate contributes to the shortfall of the Amu Darya and other streams in their lower courses. Climate Turkmenistan’s position deep inside Asia and the character of its relief are responsible for a strongly continental climate, which exhibits great fluctuations in temperatures during the day and the year. The average annual temperature is 57–61 °F (14–16 °C), but this figure masks an extremely wide range. The temperature seldom falls below 95 °F (35 °C) during summer days, and the absolute maximum high temperature in the southeast Karakum reaches 122 °F (50 °C) in the shade. By contrast, in winter the temperature in Serhetabat, in the extreme south on the border with Afghanistan, drops to −27 °F (−33 °C). Precipitation occurs mainly in the spring and ranges from about 3 inches (80 millimetres) per year in the northwest desert to as much as 12 inches in the mountains. Plant and animal life Except in the oases and mountain valleys and plateaus, the vegetation is of a pronounced desert character. In the mountain valleys of the Kopet-Dag, wild grapes, almonds, figs, and walnuts are found, while juniper and pistachio trees grow on the open slopes. On the riverbanks and islands of the Amu Darya stand tugai (dense floodplain forests) of black poplar, willow, reed, and cane. The desert is home to foxes, wildcats, gazelles, and tortoises, while the mountains support goats, cheetahs, lynx, snow leopards, and porcupines. Jackals, wild boars, various species of birds, and the rare pink deer inhabit the tugai; wild donkeys roam the Badkhyz and Garabil plateaus in the southwest. Vast flocks of ducks, geese, and swans make the east coast of the Caspian Sea their winter home. In the Caspian, fishermen find abundant herring, sprat, roach, and sturgeon; before it became heavily polluted, the Amu Darya supplied edible carp, barbel, and pike. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/Turkmenistan

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Beauty Of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is a republican state in the south-western part of Central Asia. In response to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan before, Afghanistan and Iran to the south and Caspian Sea to the west.

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Independence day Republic of Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau, country of western Africa. Situated on the Atlantic coast, the predominantly low-lying country is slightly hilly farther inland. The name Guinea remains a source of debate; it is perhaps a corruption of an Amazigh (Berber) word meaning “land of the blacks.” The country also uses the name of its capital, Bissau, to distinguish it from Guinea, its neighbour to the east and south. In the 15th and early 16th centuries the Portuguese commanded the entire western coast of Africa. Gradually their monopoly gave way to incursions by French, Dutch, English, and other European powers. The French pressured both the northern and southern borders of what is now Guinea-Bissau and placed the Casamance region of southern Senegal fully under French rule after the late 19th century. The English rivaled Portuguese authority on the coast, particularly at Bolama; a long-running dispute between the two powers resulted with Guinea-Bissau under Portuguese rule. Although Bissau is the country’s present capital and largest city, the towns of Bolama and Cacheu were important during the slave trade and in the colonial era. Land Guinea-Bissau is bounded by Senegal to the north, Guinea to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. It includes the Bijagós (Bissagos) archipelago and other islands that lie off the coast. Relief Almost all of Guinea-Bissau is low-lying and bathed daily by tidal waters that reach as far as 62 miles (100 km) inland. In the southeastern part of the country, the Fouta Djallon plateau rises approximately 600 feet (180 metres). The Boé Hills extend from the western slopes of the Fouta Djallon to the Corubal basin and the Gabú Plain. Drainage and soils The coastal area is demarcated by a dense network of drowned valleys called rias. The Bafatá Plateau is drained by the Geba and Corubal rivers. The Gabú Plain occupies the northeastern portion of the country and is drained by the Cacheu and Geba rivers and their tributaries. The interior plains are part of the southern edge of the Sénégal River basin. The uniform elevation of the mature floodplain allows rivers to meander and renders the area susceptible to flooding during the rainy season. Some eastern portions of Guinea-Bissau form a part of the upper basin of the Gambia River system. Tidal penetration into the interior, facilitated by Guinea-Bissau’s flat coastal topography, carries some agricultural advantage: the surge of brackish water can be used to irrigate the extensive drowned rice paddies called bolanhas. Anti-colonial warfare had a devastating effect on Guinea-Bissau’s soils. Arable land that fell out of use was subject to soil erosion, and, with the destruction of protective riverine dikes, the arability of some soils was compromised by excessive salination. Climate Guinea-Bissau has a generally tropical climate influenced by the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), a belt of converging trade winds that circles the Earth near the Equator. There are two pronounced seasons: the hot, rainy season, which usually lasts from June to November, and the hot, dry season. April and May are the hottest months, and temperatures can reach the high 90s F (mid-30s C). Precipitation does not vary greatly by elevation in Guinea-Bissau, although it does vary between coastal and inland areas; the coast receives some 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) of precipitation, whereas the interior is influenced by the tropical savanna climate, with greater variation in precipitation and temperature. Plant and animal life Guinea-Bissau’s three ecological zones—the tidal estuaries, the heavily forested interior plain, and the savanna—are home to remarkably diverse flora and fauna. Aquatic and riverine birds such as flamingos and pelicans are especially numerous in the coastal swamps, which are also inhabited by a variety of reptiles such as snakes, crocodiles, and sea turtles, the latter of which are endangered. In the plains and forests, lizards, gazelles, antelopes, monkeys and apes, parrots, hyenas, and leopards abound. Although there was once a substantial elephant population, it has since been virtually eliminated. Many wild animals are hunted for their meat and hides. People - Ethnic and linguistic groups Guinea-Bissau’s population is dominated by more than 20 African ethnicities, including the Balante, one of the largest ethnic groups in the country, the numerous Fulani and their many subgroups, the Diola, the Nalu, the Bijagó, the Landuma, the Papel (Pepel), and the Malinke. There is also a small Cape Verdean minority with mixed African, European, Lebanese, and Jewish origins. During the colonial period the European population consisted mainly of Portuguese but also included some Lebanese, Italian, French, and English groups, as well as members of other nationalities. Notably, there was never a substantial settler population in Guinea-Bissau, as there was in other Portuguese colonies. Among the African languages spoken in Guinea-Bissau, some 20 languages and dialects classified in the Atlantic and Mande branches of Niger-Congo languages predominate. Although Portuguese is the country’s official and formal language, it is Crioulo—a creole that emerged during the slave trade—that is spoken as the lingua franca and exerts a unifying influence in the rural areas. Religion About two-fifths of the population is Muslim. Among Christians, who make up about one-fifth of the population, Roman Catholicism predominates. About one-sixth of the population practices traditional beliefs, which include ancestor worship, possession, and animism and are especially prevalent along the coast and in the central regions. Christianity and Islam are enriched with African traditional beliefs, which results in a unique religious syncretism; saints’ days, for example, may be celebrated with drumming, processionals, masks, and traditional dance. Settlement patterns Most of the population of Guinea-Bissau live in small villages and the country’s several main towns. The population is sparse on the low-lying lands of the coast and in the savanna regions. The majority of Guinea-Bissau’s population traditionally lived in rural villages and individual households. From 1963 to 1974, during the armed struggle for independence, about one-third of the rural population fled to neighbouring countries for refuge. Those who remained tried to restructure their lives in liberated zones, while the colonial military imposed a system of aldeamentos, concentrated settlements designed to isolate the population from the nationalist forces. Although migration to urban centres such as Bissau, Cacheu, and Bolama had generally been increasing since independence, much of the urban population fled during the fighting that erupted in the late 1990s. About half of the population is rural. Demographic trends Population growth in Guinea-Bissau is lower than that of the rest of the African continent. Life expectancy for both men and women is well below the African average and substantially lower than the world average, and infant mortality is high. The population of Guinea-Bissau is, on the whole, very young: about two-fifths of the population is under age 15 and about two-thirds under 30. Guinea-Bissau does not have a significant expatriate population living outside the country, except those in the neighbouring countries of Guinea and Senegal. Historically, the only traditional pattern of emigration was due to human trafficking; during the 15th through 19th century, thousands of Guineans were exported to Cape Verde and the New World, especially to Cuba and the northern Brazilian states of Grão Pará and Maranhão, as slaves or indentured servants. More: Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/Guinea-Bissau

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