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Travel video about destination Brunei.

Brunei Darussalam Independence Day

Brunei, independent Islamic sultanate on the northern coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. It is bounded to the north by the South China Sea and on all other sides by the East Malaysian state of Sarawak, which also divides the state into two disconnected segments of unequal size. The western segment is the larger of the two and contains the capital city of Bandar Seri Begawan. Brunei achieved independence in 1984, having been a British protectorate since 1888. It is a member of the Commonwealth and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Land - Relief, drainage, and soils Brunei consists of a narrow coastal plain in the north, which gives way to rugged hills in the south. The country’s highest point is Pagon Peak (6,070 feet [1,850 metres]), in the southeast. Brunei is drained by the Belait, Tutong, and Brunei rivers in the western segment and by the Pandaruan and Temburong rivers in the east; all flow generally northward to the South China Sea. The Belait is the largest river in the country. The soils of Brunei are deeply weathered, highly leached, and generally infertile. Richer alluvial soils are found along the rivers and in some parts of the coastal floodplain, and these offer the best agricultural potential. White quartz sands are prevalent in some areas. Climate The climate of Brunei is governed by the equatorial monsoon winds. The northeast monsoon typically blows from December to March, and the southwest monsoon blows from May to September. April, October, and November are transitional months. Temperatures in Brunei are warm throughout the year, typically dropping into the mid-70s F (about 23 °C) and rising to about 90 °F (32 °C) on a daily basis. Precipitation averages about 115 inches (2,900 mm) annually in the coastal areas but can exceed 150 inches (3,800 mm) farther inland. Rainfall is generally heavier from October to January and lighter from March to August. Plant and animal life About three-fifths of the country is covered with virgin tropical rainforest, and another one-fifth is under secondary forest. The undisturbed rainforest consists mainly of hardwoods of the Dipterocarpaceae family (notably of the genus Shorea), most of which are of commercial value. Large expanses of freshwater and peat swamps are found in the poorly drained lowlands of the Belait and Tutong rivers, while mangrove swamps are common along the lower riverine reaches and sheltered coastal areas. The complex vegetation of the rainforest provides niches for a rich variety of animals, including proboscis monkeys, leaf monkeys, pigtail macaques, gibbons, sun bears, sambar deer, pangolins, bats, and many other mammals. Among Brunei’s most notable birds are its argus pheasants and hornbills. Numerous species of reptiles, including the large reticulated python, inhabit the country’s swamps and woodlands. People - Ethnic groups Nearly two-thirds of the population of Brunei is classified officially as Malay. This category, however, includes not only ethnic Malays but also a number of the indigenous peoples, namely the Dusun, Belait, Kedayan, Murut, and Bisaya (Bisayah). Chinese make up about one-tenth of the population. The remainder of Brunei’s residents consists of other (non-Malay) indigenous peoples, such as the Iban (or Sea Dayak); various peoples of South Asian descent; and temporary workers, primarily from Asia and Europe. Languages The official language is Malay, with English as a major second language. Many Chinese speak southern varieties of Chinese, and many learn Mandarin in school. Religion Brunei’s population is predominantly Sunni Muslim, although the Chinese usually follow Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, or Christianity. Some of the indigenous peoples are Christian, while others follow their own local religions. Settlement patterns The forested uplands of Brunei’s interior are sparsely populated by indigenous peoples, who practice shifting agriculture. In the country’s western segment, the Iban and the Belait generally inhabit the westernmost region near the border with Sarawak, while the Kedayan are concentrated in the central and eastern areas, and the Kadazan live primarily in the rural parts of the east-central region. The Murut and Bisaya have settled mainly in the eastern segment of Brunei. The Malays are distributed in the riverine and coastal villages and towns throughout the country, and the Chinese are concentrated in the urban areas. About two-thirds of Brunei’s population is found in and around Bandar Seri Begawan, the capital and largest urban centre. The city is located on the Brunei River about 9 miles (14 km) from its mouth on Brunei Bay. Adjacent to the modern section of the city is an older part called Kampong Ayer, where Brunei Malays live in houses built on stilts along inlets of the river. The area surrounding the cities of Kuala Belait and Seria, both in the oil-rich zone of the southwestern coast, is the country’s next most densely settled region. Demographic trends The population of Brunei is youthful and growing. More than one-fifth of the population is under age 15, and roughly half is under age 30. The birth rate is around the global average, while the death rate is among the lowest in the world, partly because of the youthful age distribution. Life expectancy is around 78 years of age, higher than the global average. Brunei has a high net migration rate, though its growth rate is steadily decreasing. Economy of Brunei Brunei’s economy is almost totally dependent on the exploitation of its vast reserves of petroleum and natural gas. Although oil and gas revenues have allowed the state to give its citizens one of the highest per capita incomes in Asia, they also have made the country dependent on a single commodity that is subject to market fluctuations. In addition, Brunei must rely on imports for nearly all its manufactured goods and most of its food. In an effort to ensure the country’s economic stability, the government has since the late 20th century striven to diversify the economy by developing other sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries, tourism, and financial services. Agriculture, fishing, and forestry Agriculture, fishing, and forestry, once the mainstays of Brunei’s economy, declined in importance after the discovery of petroleum resources in the 1920s. By the end of the 20th century, these three activities accounted for just a tiny fraction of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employed a comparably small segment of the workforce. Recognizing a need to diversify the economy away from petroleum production as well as to reduce the country’s dependence on food imports, the government subsequently embarked on a program to develop the agricultural industry. By the early 21st century Brunei had become self-sufficient in the production of poultry and eggs and was approaching self-sufficiency in vegetables. Although locally grown rice still fell far short of domestic need, production had increased markedly. Brunei is among the largest consumers of fish per capita in the world. Fish imports reached a high in the mid-1990s. In an effort to curb imports, the government implemented programs to stimulate local fisheries. Within a decade Brunei was producing more fish domestically than it imported. Overfishing has been a growing concern, however, despite the government’s emphasis on sustainable development. Aquaculture has been encouraged in carefully selected areas. With an aim of preserving the country’s abundant forest cover, Brunei enacted legislation in the late 20th century to restrict logging. Plantation programs have been implemented to provide enough sawed wood for the local market only. Timber is not exported. Resources and power The petroleum industry (including the manufacture of liquefied natural gas [LNG]) generates more than half of Brunei’s GDP, although it employs a very small portion of the labour force. Nearly all of the country’s petroleum and natural gas is produced from offshore fields located off its own western segment, and all but a small percentage of the production is exported, mostly to Asian countries. A local refinery supplies domestic needs; the country’s energy is generated almost entirely from fossil fuels. Oil was first produced in 1929, while the natural gas industry was developed after the discovery in the 1960s of large deposits. Output of oil reached a peak in the late 1970s and subsequently was reduced in order to conserve reserves. Intensive exploitation of the country’s huge deposits of natural gas in the 1970s included the construction of a liquefaction plant, and LNG has since become a major source of Brunei’s export earnings. In addition to its hydrocarbon reserves, the country has rich deposits of white quartz sand that remained virtually undeveloped in the early 21st century. Finance and trade In lieu of a central bank, the Financial Institution Division and the Brunei Currency Board, both part of the Ministry of Finance, are responsible for most central banking services. The Brunei Currency Board issues the Brunei dollar. Several Islamic commercial banks, a number of foreign banks, and a few offshore banks all operate in the country. Much of the state’s financial activity is concerned with managing its substantial foreign investments, and the return on these has become an important source of income. Revenues from petroleum and natural gas, which constitute nearly all of the country’s export earnings, have generally resulted in trade surpluses since the early 1970s. The country’s principal trading partners are in Asia and include Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, China, South Korea, and India. Brunei also trades with the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and members of the European Union to varying degrees. Brunei has been a member of ASEAN since 1984 and became home to the secretariat of the East ASEAN Business Council in the mid-1990s. More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Brunei

Independence Day

Higher Education Virtual Expo 2021 Brunei Darussalam

Join the first Higher Education Virtual Expo 2021 starting 15 February until 21 February 2021 from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm. Visit exhibitors' virtual booth, chat live, meet one on one via video conferecing and join our webinar representatives from Ministry of Education, public and private agencies and Higher Local Institutions. Members of the public who wish to participate in the expo may register online through the Higher Education Expo portal at heexpo.moe.gov.bn

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