WELCOME TO GUYANA
When it is safe to travel again, we'll be here waiting for you, waiting to say: Welcome back to nature. Welcome to Guyana.
Republic Day of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana
Guyana, country located in the northeastern corner of South America. Indigenous peoples inhabited Guyana prior to European settlement, and their name for the land, guiana (“land of water”), gave the country its name. Present-day Guyana reflects its British and Dutch colonial past and its reactions to that past. It is the only English-speaking country of South America. Since Guyana gained its independence in 1966, the country’s chief economic assets have been its natural resources, mainly its pristine rainforests, sugarcane plantations, rice fields, and bauxite and gold reserves. Despite those riches, Guyana remained one of the poorest countries in South America into the first decades of the 21st century, but the country’s economic fortunes changed dramatically in 2015 with the first of a raft of rich deepwater oil field discoveries in Guyana’s offshore Stabroek Block. Some geographers classify Guyana as a part of the Caribbean region, which they deem to include the West Indies as well as Guyana, Belize, Suriname, and French Guiana on the South American mainland. The capital and chief port of Guyana is Georgetown. Guyana’s populace is mainly of colonial origin, although Indians are scattered throughout the forested interior. The more numerous coastal peoples are chiefly descendants of slaves from Africa and indentured workers from India, who were originally transported to work the coastal sugarcane plantations. Ethnic problems between the last two groups have played a disruptive role in Guyanese society. Guyana has been a member of the Commonwealth (an international group made up of the United Kingdom and a number of its former dependencies) since 1970. Politically, however, Guyana moved on a steady course toward communism from the time of independence until the death of the first prime minister, Forbes Burnham, in 1985, after which ties with Western powers were strengthened, and by the 1990s privatization had begun. Land Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, by Suriname (along the Courantyne River) to the east, by Brazil to the south and southwest, and by Venezuela to the west. Guyana is involved in territorial disputes with both Suriname and Venezuela that are legacies of colonial rule. Although a United Nations international tribunal settled a long-standing maritime boundary dispute between Guyana and Suriname in 2007, the latter still claims the New River Triangle, a 6,000-square-mile (15,600-square-km) area between two tributaries of the Courantyne River in southern Guyana. The currently recognized border between Suriname and Guyana along the Courantyne is also in contention—Suriname claims sovereignty over the entire river and thus views its west bank as the border, while Guyana claims that the thalweg, or deepest channel of the river, is the boundary. The dispute between Guyana and Venezuela dates from 1895, when the British government claimed ownership of the Essequibo River basin. An 1899 settlement awarded Venezuela part of the area, but in 1962 Venezuela claimed all the territory west of the Essequibo. Relief The narrow plain that extends along the country’s Atlantic coast has been modified considerably by humans. Much of the area, which measures only about 10 miles (16 km) at its widest point, has been reclaimed from the sea by a series of canals and some 140 miles (225 km) of dikes. The coastal plain’s inland border is generally marked by canals that separate the plain from interior swamps. About 40 miles (65 km) inland from the coast is a region of undulating land that rises from 50-foot (15-metre) hills on the eastern, coastal side of the region to 400-foot (120-metre) ones on the western side. The area is between 80 and 100 miles (130 and 160 km) wide and is widest in the southeast. It is covered with sand, from which it takes its name as the white-sands (Zanderij) region. A small savanna region in the east lies about 60 miles (100 km) from the coast and is surrounded by the white-sands belt. The sand partly overlies a low crystalline plateau that is generally less than 500 feet (150 metres) in elevation. The plateau forms most of the country’s centre and is penetrated by igneous rock intrusions that cause the numerous rapids of Guyana’s rivers. Beyond the crystalline plateau, the Kaieteurian Plateau lies generally below 1,600 feet (490 metres) above sea level; it is the site of the spectacular Kaieteur Falls, noted for their sheer 741-foot (226-metre) initial plunge. The plateau is overlain with sandstones and shales that in the south form the extensive Rupununi Savanna region. The Acaraí Mountains, which rise to about 2,000 feet (600 metres), rim the plateau on the southern border, and it is crowned on the western frontier by the Pakaraima Mountains, which rise to 9,094 feet (2,772 metres) at Mount Roraima. The Rupununi Savanna is bisected by the east–west-trending Kanuku Mountains. Guyana’s four main rivers—the Courantyne, Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo—all flow from the south and empty into the Atlantic along the eastern section of the coast. Among the tributaries of the Essequibo, the Potaro, the Mazaruni, and the Cuyuni drain the northwest, and the Rupununi drains the southern savanna. The coast is cut by shorter rivers, including the Pomeroon, the Mahaica, the Mahaicony, and the Abary. The rivers are part of the watershed of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, and the headwaters of the Rupununi in Brazil are often confused with those of the Amazon. Drainage is poor because the average gradient is only about 1 foot per mile (19 centimetres per km), and there are swamps and flooding in the mountains and savannas. The rivers are not suitable for long-distance transportation because they are broken by interior falls, and in the coastal zone their mouths and estuaries are blocked by mud and by sandbars that may occur 2 to 3 miles (about 4 km) out to sea. Soils The coastal soils are fertile but acidic. The fine-particle grayish blue clays of the coastal plain are composed of alluvium from the Amazon (the mouth of which lies east of Guyana, on the Brazilian coast) deposited by the south equatorial ocean current and of much smaller amounts of alluvium from the country’s rivers. They overlie white sands and clays and can support intensive agriculture but must be subjected to fallowing to restore fertility. Pegasse soil, a type of tropical peat, occurs behind the coastal clays and along the river estuaries, while silts line the banks of the lower rivers. Reef sands occur in bands in the coastal plain, especially near the Courantyne and Essequibo rivers. The rock soils of the interior are leached and infertile, and the white sands are almost pure quartz. Climate of Guyana High temperatures, heavy rainfall with small seasonal differences, high humidity, and high average cloud cover provide climatic characteristics of an equatorial lowland. Temperatures are remarkably uniform. At Georgetown the daily temperature varies from the mid-70s to the mid-80s °F (mid-20s to the upper 20s °C). The constant heat and high humidity are mitigated near the coast by the trade winds. Rainfall derives mainly from the movement of the intertropical front, or doldrums. It is heavy everywhere on the plateau and the coast. The annual average at Georgetown is about 90 inches (2,290 mm), and on the interior Rupununi Savanna it is about 70 inches (1,800 mm). On the coast a long wet season, from April to August, and a short wet season, from December to early February, are sufficiently well marked on the average, but in the southern savannas the short wet season does not occur. Total annual rainfall is variable, and seasonal drought can occur in July and August when the southeast trade winds parallel the coast. Variations in Guyana’s climatic patterns have a determining effect on tropical crop production. Plant and animal life Many plants of the coast, including mangroves and various saltwater grasses, grow in shallow brackish water and help to protect or extend the land. The wet savanna behind the coast has coarse tufted grasses and a wide scattering of palms, notably the coconut, the truli, and the manicole. High rainforest, or selva, covers about three-fourths of the land area and is of extraordinary variety and magnificence. Prominent trees include the greenheart and the wallaba on the sandy soils of the northern edge, the giant mora and the crabwood on swampy sites, the balata and other latex producers, and many species such as the siruaballi and the hubaballi that yield handsome cabinet woods. The interior savanna is mostly open grassland, with much bare rock, many termite hills, and clumps of ita palm. All forms of animal life are immensely varied and abundant, though few, apart from birds and insects, are normally visible. The tapir is the country’s largest land mammal, and the jaguar is the largest and fiercest of the cats, which also include the ocelot; monkeys and deer are the most common animals. Among the more exotic species are the sloth, the great anteater, the capybara (bush pig), and the armadillo. Birds include the vulture, the kiskadee, the blue sacki, the hummingbird, the kingfisher, and the scarlet ibis of the coast and lower rivers and the macaw, the tinamou, the bell-bird, and the cock-of-the-rock in the forest and savanna. The caiman (a reptile similar to the alligator) is the most common of the larger freshwater creatures. The giant anaconda, or water boa, is the largest of the many kinds of snakes, and the bushmaster is the most vicious. Lizards are numerous and include the iguana in the lower rivers. Sharks and stingrays are found offshore. The snapper and the grouper are common ocean fish, and shrimp abounds in the muddy currents off the coast. The manatee is also common in Guyanese waters. Among the freshwater fish is the huge piraucu, which attains lengths up to 14 feet (430 cm). More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Guyana
Republic Day Cooperative Republic of Gujana
To answer the PNC allegation that the existing electoral system unduly favoured the South Asian community, the British government introduced for the elections of December 1964 a new system of proportional representation. Thereafter the PNC and a smaller, more conservative party formed a coalition government, led by Burnham, which took the colony into independence under its new name, Guyana, on May 26, 1966. The PNC gained full power in the general election of 1968, which was characterized by questionable rolls of overseas voters and widespread claims of electoral impropriety. On February 23, 1970, Guyana was proclaimed a cooperative republic within the Commonwealth. A president was elected by the National Assembly, but Burnham retained executive power as prime minister. Burnham declared his government to be socialist and in the later 1970s sought to reorder the government in his favour. In 1978 one of the most bizarre incidents in modern history occurred in Guyana when some 900 members of a religious community known as the Peoples Temple committed mass suicide in their Jonestown commune at the behest of their leader, Jim Jones. In 1980, under a new constitution that provided for a unicameral legislature, Burnham became executive president, with still wider powers, after an election in which international observers detected widespread fraud. Two major assassinations also occurred during this time—Jesuit priest and journalist Bernard Darke was killed in July 1979, and prominent historian and political leader Walter Rodney was murdered in June 1980. Many observers accused Burnham of involvement in the killings. In the following years Burnham faced an economy shattered by the depressed demand for bauxite and sugar and a restive populace suffering from severe commodity shortages and a near breakdown of essential public services. Burnham enforced austerity measures, and he began leaning toward Soviet-bloc countries for support. When he died in 1985, Burnham was succeeded by the prime minister, Hugh Desmond Hoyte, who pledged to continue Burnham’s policies. In elections held that year, Hoyte won the presidency by a wide margin, but once again charges of vote fraud were raised. In the late 1980s Hoyte gradually shifted away from Burnham’s ideology, denouncing communism and granting more rights to the Guyanese. His administration, confronting worsening financial and economic problems, moved to liberalize the economy. He also bowed to pressure for electoral reform, and elections held in 1992 were considered free and fair by international observers. The PPP triumphed in the elections, and Jagan became president. In contrast to the strong socialist views he had held decades earlier, Jagan now advocated policies more conducive to democratization and economic reform. After Jagan’s death in 1997, his wife, Janet Jagan, was elected president in elections held later that year. The PNC disputed the results of the elections, however, and many demonstrations and protests ensued. Janet Jagan stepped down in 1999, attributing her resignation to ill health. Bharrat Jagdeo of the PPP was appointed president; he was reelected in 2001 and again in 2006. Bonham C. Richardson Jack K. Menke Jagdeo’s administration was beset with numerous difficulties. The PNC staged more protests after the 2001 parliamentary elections, when it seemed to many that the PPP would continue to win control of the government simply because their constituency, mainly South Asians, was the majority population in the country. A violent crime spree, fueled by political unrest, broke out in 2002 following the escape of five convicts from Georgetown Prison. In 2005 severe flooding killed dozens of people and destroyed large amounts of the rice and sugarcane crops. Prospects brightened in September 2007 when a United Nations international tribunal settled a long-standing maritime boundary dispute between Guyana and Suriname by granting Guyana the far-larger share of the Guyana-Suriname Basin in contention. A new boundary was drawn, and soon afterward offshore oil exploration was begun there. Despite his apprehension, Jagdeo signed a trade agreement with the European Union in 2008; he hoped to increase economic stability and strengthen international relations. Guyana continued to struggle with violent crime, ethnic tensions, and episodic political unrest, but the economy improved, as the government invested in the agriculture and forestry sectors, in offshore oil exploration, and in new roads and bridges. Jack K. Menke Jagdeo was constitutionally prohibited from running for a third term, and in November 2011 Donald Ramotar of the PPP was elected president. That year, however, his party and its junior coalition partner, the Civic Party, subsequently lost their majority in the National Assembly when a coalition was formed by A Partnership for National Unity (APNU)—an alliance comprising the People’s National Congress Reform (PNCR; a reconstituted PNC, including the former Reform Party) and several smaller parties—and the Alliance for Change (AFC) party. APNU-AFC’s single-vote majority, combined with the PPP’s continued control of the presidency, resulted in a period of legislative gridlock. In November 2014 Ramotar, fearing an imminent no-confidence vote in response to some $22.5 million of spending without parliamentary approval, prorogued parliament. Although the constitution allowed the president to suspend parliament for up to six months, the opposition accused him of acting dictatorially. In the national election in May 2015 the combined APNU-AFC slate garnered some 207,000 votes compared with about 201,000 for the PPP, meaning that the presidency went to the coalition’s candidate, publisher and former general David Granger. Ramotar protested the results, but international observers declared the election to be free and fair. The stakes in Guyanese politics were raised in 2015 by the discovery of a rich oil field in the country’s offshore waters. By the end of 2020, another 17 underwater fields had been discovered in Guyana’s Stabroek Block in the Atlantic, promising to transform the country’s economy into one of the fastest-growing in the world as Guyana entered a partnership with Exxon, which had made the discoveries. Both APNU-AFC and the PPP jockeyed for position to control the development of the new industry and the disposition of the wealth portended by the oil boom. Criticized for not acting quickly enough to regulate the oil industry, Granger’s government lost a vote of confidence by the narrowest of margins (33–32) in December 2018. Instead of scheduling an election within the three-month period mandated by the constitution, however, the ruling coalition sought to have the vote of confidence overturned in the courts. Ultimately, its efforts proved futile, and, after much wrangling, an election was set for early March 2020. The election sparked its own controversy when Granger’s claim of victory was challenged in the wake of obvious election fraud. A 100-day-long national recount followed and revealed the PPP to have been the winner by a margin of about 15,000 votes. Once again APNU-AFC challenged the results in court, and for some five months Granger balked at handing over power. Finally, responding to intense international pressure, he stepped aside, and in early August 2020 Mohamed Irfaan Ali of the PPP became Guyana’s president. Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/Guyana/Independence