Archiwum

Emperor Akihito's birthday

Japan, island country lying off the east coast of Asia. It consists of a great string of islands in a northeast-southwest arc that stretches for approximately 1,500 miles (2,400 km) through the western North Pacific Ocean. Nearly the entire land area is taken up by the country’s four main islands; from north to south these are Hokkaido (Hokkaidō), Honshu (Honshū), Shikoku, and Kyushu (Kyūshū). Honshu is the largest of the four, followed in size by Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku. In addition, there are numerous smaller islands, the major groups of which are the Ryukyu (Nansei) Islands (including the island of Okinawa) to the south and west of Kyushu and the Izu, Bonin (Ogasawara), and Volcano (Kazan) islands to the south and east of central Honshu. The national capital, Tokyo (Tōkyō), in east-central Honshu, is one of the world’s most populous cities. The Japanese landscape is rugged, with more than four-fifths of the land surface consisting of mountains. There are many active and dormant volcanoes, including Mount Fuji (Fuji-san), which, at an elevation of 12,388 feet (3,776 metres), is Japan’s highest mountain. Abundant precipitation and the generally mild temperatures throughout most of the country have produced a lush vegetation cover and, despite the mountainous terrain and generally poor soils, have made it possible to raise a variety of crops. Japan has a large and, to a great extent, ethnically homogeneous population, which is heavily concentrated in the low-lying areas along the Pacific coast of Honshu. Complexity and contrast are the keynotes of life in Japan—a country possessing an intricate and ancient cultural tradition yet one that, since 1950, has emerged as one of the world’s most economically and technologically advanced societies. Heavy emphasis is placed on education, and Japan is one of the world’s most literate countries. Tension between old and new is apparent in all phases of Japanese life. A characteristic sensitivity to natural beauty and a concern with form and balance are evident in such cities as Kyōto and Nara, as well as in Japan’s ubiquitous gardens. Even in the countryside, however, the impact of rapid Westernization is evident in many aspects of Japanese life. The agricultural regions are characterized by low population densities and well-ordered rice fields and fruit orchards, whereas the industrial and urbanized belt along the Pacific coast of Honshu is noted for its highly concentrated population, heavy industrialization, and environmental pollution. Humans have occupied Japan for tens of thousands of years, but Japan’s recorded history begins only in the 1st century bce, with mention in Chinese sources. Contact with China and Korea in the early centuries ce brought profound changes to Japan, including the Chinese writing system, Buddhism, and many artistic forms from the continent. The first steps at political unification of the country occurred in the late 4th and early 5th centuries ce under the Yamato court. A great civilization then developed first at Nara in the 8th century and then at Heian-kyō (now Kyōto) from the late 8th to the late 12th century. The seven centuries thereafter were a period of domination by military rulers culminating in near isolation from the outside world from the early 17th to the mid-19th century. The reopening of the country ushered in contact with the West and a time of unprecedented change. Japan sought to become a modern industrialized nation and pursued the acquisition of a large overseas empire, initially in Korea and China. By late 1941 this latter policy caused direct confrontation with the United States and its allies and to defeat in World War II (1939–45). Since the war, however, Japan’s spectacular economic growth—one of the greatest of any nation in that period—brought the country to the forefront of the world economy. It now is one of the world’s foremost manufacturing countries and traders of goods and is a global financial leader. Land Japan is bounded to the west by the Sea of Japan (East Sea), which separates it from the eastern shores of South and North Korea and southeastern Siberia (Russia); to the north by La Perouse (Sōya) Strait, separating it from Russian-held Sakhalin Island, and by the Sea of Okhotsk; to the northeast by the southern Kuril Islands (since World War II under Soviet and then Russian administration); to the east and south by the Pacific; and to the southwest by the East China Sea, which separates it from China. The island of Tsushima lies between northwestern Kyushu and southeastern South Korea and defines the Korea Strait on the Korean side and the Tsushima Strait on the Japanese side. Relief The mountainous character of the country is the outcome of orogenic (mountain-building) forces largely during Quaternary time (roughly, the past 2.6 million years), as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of violent earthquakes, volcanic activity, and signs of change in sea levels along the coast. There are no sizable structural plains and peneplains (large land areas leveled by erosion), features that usually occur in more stable regions of the Earth. The mountains are for the most part in a youthful stage of dissection in which steep slopes are incised by dense river-valley networks. Rivers are mostly torrential, and their valleys are accompanied by series of river terraces that are the result of movements in the Earth’s crust, as well as climatic and sea-level changes in Holocene times (i.e., the past 11,700 years). Recent volcanoes are juxtaposed with old and highly dissected ones. The shores are characterized by elevated and depressed features such as headlands and bays, which display an incipient stage of development. The mountains are divided into many small land blocks that are separated by lowlands or deep saddles; there is no long or continuous mountain range. These land blocks are the result of intense faulting (movement of adjacent rock masses along a fracture) and warping (bending of the Earth’s crust); the former process is regarded as dominant. One consequence is that mountain blocks are often bounded by fault scarps and flexure slopes that descend in step formation to the adjacent lowlands. Coalescing alluvial fans—cone-shaped deposits of alluvium that run together—are formed where rivers emerge from the mountains. When the rivers are large enough to extend their courses to the sea, low deltaic plains develop in front of the fans; this occurs most frequently where the rivers empty into shallow and sheltered bays, as in the deltas of Kantō (Kwanto), Nōbi, and Ōsaka. In most places, however, fan surfaces plunge directly into the sea and are separated by low, sandy beach ridges. Dissected plains are common. Intense disturbances have caused many former alluvial fans, deltas, and sea bottoms to be substantially uplifted to form flat-topped uplands such as those found in the Kantō Plain. Frequently the uplands have been overlain with volcanic ash, as in the Kantō and Tokachi plains. Geologic framework Japan is one of the world’s most geologically unstable areas. The country experiences some 1,000 tremors annually, most of them minor, though major quakes—as in Tokyo-Yokohama in 1923 and Kōbe in 1995—cause considerable loss of life and widespread destruction. Violent volcanic eruptions occur frequently, and at least 60 volcanoes have been active within historical time. Volcanoes born since 1900 include Shōwa Volcano on Hokkaido and Myōjin Rock off the Beyoneisu (or Bayonnaise) Rocks in the Pacific. Among the major eruptions since 1980 are those of Mounts O (1983) and Mihara (1986) in the Izu Islands and Mount Unzen (1991) in Kyushu. The country’s abundant hot springs are mostly of volcanic origin. Many of the gigantic volcanoes are conical in shape (e.g., Mount Fuji), while others form steep lava domes (e.g., Mounts Dai and Unzen). Conspicuous shield volcanoes (broad, gently sloping volcanic cones) are rare, and extensive lava plateaus are lacking. One of the characteristics of the volcanic areas is the prevalence of calderas (large, circular, basin-shaped volcanic depressions), especially in the northeast and southwest, many of which are filled with water, such as Lakes Kutcharo, Towada, and Ashi. The cause of this instability—indeed, the reason for Japan’s existence—is the tectonic movement of several of the Earth’s major crustal plates in the vicinity of the archipelago. Most important is the subduction (sinking) of the Pacific Plate (in the north) and the Philippine Plate (in the south) beneath the Eurasian Plate, upon which Japan lies. The movements of these plates have formed six mountain arcs off the northeastern coast of Asia: from northeast to southwest, the Chishima Range of the Kuril Islands; the Karafuto (Sakhalin) Mountain system of Hokkaido; the Northeast, Southwest, and Shichito-Mariana ranges of Honshu; and the Ryukyu Island formations. More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Japan  

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/23

L’inauguration de l’exposition « Solidarité franco-polonaise

L’Ambassadeur de France, Frédéric Billet, a inauguré le 10 décembre 2021 l’exposition « Solidarité franco-polonaise. En défense des droits de l’Homme, commémorations du 13 décembre 1981 » élaborée par la Fondation « Centre Karta » en coopération avec l’ambassade, l’Institut français de Pologne et le Centre de civilisation française et d’études francophones de l’Université de Varsovie.

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/22

Wigilia” w Konsulacie Republiki Chorwacji przygotowana przez Konsula Honorowego z siedzibą w Krakowie

Tradycyjna „Wigilia” zorganizowana przez Konsula Honorowego Pawła Włodarczyka z siedzibą w Krakowie i obszarem konsularnym obejmującym województwo małopolskie, podkarpacie i śląskie odbyła się w sobotę 11 grudnia 2021 roku w Dworze Czeczów, gdzie mieści się Konsulat. W swoim przemówieniu ambasador Tomislav Vidošević m.in. pogratulował konsulowi Włodarczykowi 10. rocznicy otwarcia konsulatu, zwracając uwagę na szereg niezwykle cennych i zrealizowanych projektów, które nieustannie wzmacniają więzy dwóch zaprzyjaźnionych narodów i państw, Chorwacji i Polski.

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/22

Außenministerin Baerbock am 10. Dezember in Polen

Sie verdeutlichte mit dieser Reiseroute die Bedeutung, die das Weimarer Dreieck und Europa für die deutsche Regierung und Außenpolitik haben. Ihre Botschaft war klar: „Europa ist der Dreh- und Angelpunkt für unsere Außenpolitik.“

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/22

Perú fue reconocido como el mejor destino de cruceros fluviales del mundo

El Perú ha sido ganador de dos categorías importantes en la primera edición de los World Cruise Awards y ha sido reconocido como el mejor destino de cruceros fluviales del mundo y de América Latina. Mayor información sobre dicho reconocimiento se encuentra disponible en la página web https://www.peru.travel/pe/noticias/peru-es-reconocido-como-el-mejor-destino-de-cruceros-fluviales-del-mundo .

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/21

New Ambassador of NewZealand to Latvia, H.E. Ms Alana Hudson, discuss Łotwy Nowej Zelandii bilateral cooperation.

State Secretary @andrispelss and the new Ambassador of NewZealand to Latvia, H.E. Ms Alana Hudson, discuss Flaga Łotwy Nowej Zelandii bilateral cooperation, including the development of economic ties & exchange of high-level visits on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of diplomatic relations.

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/21

A 18ª edição do Bom Dia Brasil Festival no OSiR Mokotów

A 18ª edição do Bom Dia Brasil Festival, organizado pela Fundacja Macunaima ocorreu, com o apoio institucional da Embaixada do Brasil na Polônia, no dia 27 de novembro 2021 no OSiR Mokotów. O Embaixador Hadil da Rocha Vianna deu as boas-vindas aos participantes do evento, que, como de hábito, reuniu número significativo de interessados em manifestações culturais brasileiras em Varsóvia..

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/21

Żołnierze służący w Międzynarodowej Grupie Bojowej NATO enhanced Forward Presence Battle Group Poland, odwiedzili Dom Janusza Korczaka w Olecku.

Żołnierze NATO służący w Międzynarodowej Grupie Bojowej NATO enhanced Forward Presence Battle Group Poland, odwiedzili Dom Janusza Korczaka w Olecku jako święci Mikołajowie. W ramach zaangażowania w życie lokalnych społeczności, 72 żołnierzy spędziło popołudnie rozdając prezenty i bawiąc się z dziećmi.

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/21

Day of the Republic of Niger

Niger, officially Republic of Niger, French République du Niger, landlocked western African country. It is bounded on the northwest by Algeria, on the northeast by Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by Nigeria and Benin, and on the west by Burkina Faso and Mali. The capital is Niamey. The country takes its name from the Niger River, which flows through the southwestern part of its territory. The name Niger derives in turn from the phrase gher n-gheren, meaning “river among rivers,” in the Tamashek language. Land - Relief Niger extends for about 750 miles (1,200 km) from north to south and about 930 miles (1,460 km) from east to west. It tends to monotony in its features, is intersected by numerous depressions, and is dominated by arid highlands in the north. Rainfall increases as one proceeds southward so that the country divides naturally into three distinct zones—a desert zone in the north; an intermediate zone, where nomadic pastoralists raise cattle, in the centre; and a cultivated zone in the south. It is in this southern zone that the greater part of the population, both nomadic and settled, is concentrated. The highlands of the north are cut by valleys (kori) of the Aïr Massif, which is an extension of the Ahaggar (Hoggar) Mountains of Algeria and consists of a range running north to south in the centre of Niger, with individual mountain masses forming separate “islands”: from north to south these are Tazerzaït, where Mount Gréboun reaches an elevation of 6,379 feet (1,944 metres); Tamgak; Takolokouzet; Angornakouer; Bagzane; and Tarouadji. To the northeast is a series of high plateaus, which form a bridge between the Ahaggar Mountains of Algeria and the Tibesti Mountains of Chad. From west to east these are the plateaus of Djado, Mangueni, and Tchigaï. The sandy regions of the Nigerien Sahara extend to either side of the Aïr. To the west the Talak region includes the Tamesna area in the north (where fossil valleys are filled with moving sand dunes) and the Azaoua area in the south. East of the Aïr is the Ténéré region, covered partly by an expanse of sand called an erg, partly by a stony plain called a reg. The plateaus of the south, which form a belt about 900 miles long, may be divided into three regions. To the west is the Djerma Ganda region. Its large valleys are filled with sand, while dallol (fossilized valleys of rivers that formed tributaries of the Niger in ancient times) descend from the Aïr and the Iforas Massif of neighbouring Mali. The central region consists of the rocky Adar Doutchi and Majia areas; it is the region of the gulbi (dried-up valleys of former tributaries of the Sokoto River) and the Tegama—a tableland of sandstone, ending, toward the Aïr, at the Tiguidit scarp. To the east the underlying rock reappears in the Damagarim, Mounio, and Koutous regions, to the north of which is the region of Damergou, consisting of clays. In the Manga region, in the east, traces of ancient watercourses appear on the sandy plain. Drainage and soils It is convenient to make a distinction between the ancient hydrographic system, which allowed agriculturalists, fishermen, and pastoralists to live in the Aïr region about 5,000 or 6,000 years ago, and the present simple system, which forms the basis of the marked difference between the northern and southern parts of the country. The present system includes to the west the Niger River basin and to the east the basin of Lake Chad; between the two occur vestiges of the older system, such as the dallol and the gulbi. To the west the Niger River crosses about 350 miles of Niger’s territory. Because of the change in river flow, which occurs because of the dispersal of its waters in its interior delta region in Mali, it is only in January and February that it flows past Niamey in flood. At other times the river is fed by certain temporary watercourses that flow in from the right bank. These are the Gorouol, the Dargol, the Sirba, the Goroubi, the Djamangou, the Tapoa, and the Mékrou; the last two flow through W National Park (so called because the Niger flows through the area in the form of a W). On the left bank, proceeding eastward, appear the dallol, the vestiges of the older watercourses. Generally running from north to south, they constitute zones of dampness, although a few still contain waters that flow toward the Niger. The best known are the Bosso, the Foga, and the Maouri wadis. Other vestiges consist of the kori, which run down from the Aïr and from former tributaries that had their sources in the Iforas Massif, and which flowed to a confluence at what is now the Ti-m-merhsoï Wadi. No waters flow through the kori now, but water is still to be found beneath their sands. Other remnants of the old system are formed by the gulbi, through which water still flows annually, occasionally causing damage. To the east is situated the basin of Lake Chad, a large, shallow lake, which at its highest contemporary level has an area of approximately 9,650 square miles; of this, Niger possesses about 1,100 square miles. Its extent is considerably reduced during the dry season. The Komadougou Yobé River, which flows into Lake Chad from the west, forms part of the frontier between Niger and Nigeria. Its water level, which begins to rise in August, from January to May consists only of some stagnant pools. In addition to the drainage system described, it may be noted that rainwater collects in several basins, so that some permanent lakes or pools also exist; these are found at Keïta and Adouna in the Adar Doutchi region, at Madaroumfa in the Maradi gulbi, and at Guidimouni to the east of Zinder. The water table in some areas can also be tapped to produce artesian wells. The soils fall into three natural regions. In the Saharan region in the north the soil is infertile, except in a few oases where water is found. In the region known as the Sahel, which forms a transitional zone between the Sahara and the region to the south, the soils are thin and white, being covered with salty deposits resulting from intense evaporation that forms an infertile surface crust. The third region (in the south) is cultivated. In this area the soils are associated with extensive dunes or uplands or with basins or depressions. Some of the soils in the latter, such as those in the Niger basin and in the gulbi, are rich. Black soils occur in the Kolo basin. Throughout the region, however, and above all on the plateaus, less fertile lateritic (leached iron-bearing) soils occur. Climate of Niger Niger extends southward from the tropic of Cancer, and the northern two-thirds of its territory lies in dry tropical desert. In the southern part of the country the climate is of the type known as Sahelian, which is characterized by a single, short rainy season. In January and February the continental equivalent of the northeast trade winds, the harmattan, blows southwestward from the Sahara toward the equator. Typically dust-laden, dry, and desiccating, the harmattan hinders normal living conditions on the southern fringe of the desert. From April to May the southern trade winds blowing from the Atlantic reach the equator and are diverted toward the Sahara where they meet with the harmattan—an encounter that results in violent line squalls and that signals the beginning of the rainy season. The rains last from one to four months, according to the latitude; August is the rainy month everywhere except in the far north, where the rainfall is unpredictable. Niger lies in one of the hottest regions of the world. Temperatures rise from February to May and drop during the “winter” rainy season, rising again somewhat before falling to their annual minimum averages in December or January. During May (the hottest month), afternoon temperatures are high everywhere, ranging from a low of about 108 °F (42 °C) at Nguigmi on Lake Chad to 113 °F (45 °C) at Bilma and Agadez, both in the northern desert. In January, afternoon temperatures average more than 90 °F (mid-30s C) at most stations but at night may drop to freezing level in the desert. The daily range is greater in the desert north than in the south and is also more extreme during the dry season. Rainfall varies according to location as well as season. The 10-inch isohyet (line on a map connecting points having equal rainfall) follows a line from near Tahoua to Gouré, in effect marking the northern limit of nomadic pastoral life, for the rainfall permits a sparse vegetation to grow. To the extreme south the 30-inch isohyet marks the southern limit of this zone, after which the southern agricultural zone begins. In the course of the same rainy season a most irregular spatial pattern of rainfall may occur, while from one year to another the total amount of rainfall may also vary; in addition, the rainy season itself may arrive early or late, thus jeopardizing crops. More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Niger

Czytaj więcej

2021/12/18