Archiwum

Anniversary of the assumption of power by the founder of the state, Sheikh Jassem Bin Mohamed Bin Al-Thani State of Qatar

Qatar, independent emirate on the west coast of the Persian Gulf. Occupying a small desert peninsula that extends northward from the larger Arabian Peninsula, it has been continuously but sparsely inhabited since prehistoric times. Following the rise of Islam, the region became subject to the Islamic caliphate; it later was ruled by a number of local and foreign dynasties before falling under the control of the Thani dynasty (Āl Thānī) in the 19th century. The Thani dynasty sought British patronage against competing tribal groups and against the Ottoman Empire—which occupied the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—and in exchange the United Kingdom controlled Qatar’s foreign policy until the latter’s independence in 1971. Thereafter the monarchy continued to nurture close ties with Western powers as a central pillar of its national security. Qatar has one of the world’s largest reserves of petroleum and natural gas and employs large numbers of foreign workers in its production process. Because of its oil wealth, the country’s residents enjoy a high standard of living and a well-established system of social services. he capital is the eastern coastal city of Doha (Al-Dawḥah), which was once a centre for pearling and is home to most of the country’s inhabitants. Radiating inland from its handsome Corniche, or seaside boulevard, Doha blends premodern architecture with new office buildings, shopping malls, and apartment complexes. Qatar’s traditions draw on a nomadic past and practices that are centuries old, from hand-woven products to falconry. However, the country’s population is urban and coastal, its daily life is thoroughly modern, and its rulers have sought to enhance civil liberties. The press is among the freest in the region, and though they are religious and traditional, Qataris pride themselves on their tolerance for the cultures and beliefs of others. On the status of the country’s large expatriate community, the ruling emir has noted that “in Qatar, they find security and a dignified livelihood.” Land Slightly smaller in area than the U.S. state of Connecticut, the Qatar peninsula is about 100 miles (160 km) from north to south, 50 miles (80 km) from east to west, and is generally rectangular in shape. It shares a border with eastern Saudi Arabia where the peninsula connects to the mainland and is north and west of the United Arab Emirates. The island country of Bahrain lies some 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Qatar. A territorial dispute with Bahrain was resolved in 2001, when the International Court of Justice awarded the Ḥawār Islands (just off the coast of Qatar) to Bahrain and gave Qatar sovereignty over Janān Island and the ruined fortress-town of Al-Zubārah (on the Qatari mainland). That year Qatar also signed a final border demarcation agreement with Saudi Arabia. Relief and drainage Most of Qatar’s area is flat, low-lying desert, which rises from the east to a central limestone plateau. Hills rise to about 130 feet (40 metres) along the western and northern coasts, and Abū al-Bawl Hill (335 feet [103 metres]) is the country’s highest point. Sand dunes and salt flats, or sabkhahs, are the chief topographical features of the southern and southeastern sectors. Qatar has more than 350 miles (560 km) of coastline; its border with Saudi Arabia is some 37 miles (60 km) long. There are no permanent bodies of fresh water. Soils Soils in Qatar are marked by a small degree of organic material and are generally calcareous and agriculturally unproductive. Windblown sand dunes are common, and soil distribution over bedrock is light and uneven. Soil salinity is high in coastal regions and in agricultural regions where poor regulation of irrigation has led to increased salinity. Climate The climate is hot and humid from June to September, with daytime temperatures as high as 122 °F (50 °C). The spring and fall months—April, May, October, and November—are temperate, averaging about 63 °F (17 °C), and the winters are slightly cooler. Precipitation is scarce, with less than 3 inches (75 mm) falling annually (generally in winter). Plant and animal life Vegetation is found only in the north, where the country’s irrigated farming areas are located and where desert plants blossom briefly during the spring rains. Fauna is limited, and the government has implemented a program to protect the Arabian oryx, Qatar’s national animal. People - Ethnic groups and languages Qatar was originally settled by Bedouin nomads from the central part of the Arabian Peninsula. Qatari citizens, however, constitute only a small portion—roughly one-ninth—of the total population today. Economic growth beginning in the 1970s created an economy dependent on foreign workers—mostly from Pakistan, India, and Iran—who now far outnumber nationals. Few Qataris retain a nomadic lifestyle. Arabic is the official language, and most Qataris speak a dialect of Gulf Arabic similar to that spoken in surrounding states. Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools, and English is commonly used. Among the large expatriate population, Persian and Urdu are often spoken. Religion Islam is the official religion, and Qataris are largely Sunni Muslims. There is a small Shiʿi minority. The ruling Thani family (Āl Thānī) adheres to the same Wahhābī interpretation of Islam as the rulers of Saudi Arabia, though not as strictly. Women, for example, have greater freedom in Qatar than in Saudi Arabia. The non-Qatari population has a more diverse religious makeup, with Muslims, Christians, and Hindus constituting the largest religious groups. More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Qatar  

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2021/12/18

Festiwal Kultury Kazachskiej

10 grudnia 2021 roku w Bydgoszczy odbył się Festiwal Kultury Kazachskiej, zorganizowany przez studentów z Kazachstanu oraz Centrum Kultury Kazachskiej Qazaq Eli przy Wyższej Szkole Gospodarki, w ramach obchodów 30-lecia Niepodległości Kazachstanu. W imprezie wzięło udział ponad 180 osób.

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2021/12/17

Spotkania literackie z Ivanem Hercegiem w Poznaniu i Warszawie

Chorwacki poeta i pisarz Ivan Herceg zaprezentował swoją twórczość na spotkaniach literackich we wtorek 7 i środę 8 grudnia w Poznaniu oraz w czwartek 9 i piątek 10 grudnia w Warszawie. Spotkania literackie zostały zorganizowane przez lektorat języka chorwackiego na Uniwersytecie im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu i Uniwersytecie Warszawskim we współpracy z Ambasadą.

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2021/12/17

驻波兰大使孙霖江在波媒体发表署名文章《为了人民当家作主》

    2021年12月9日,孙霖江大使在波《论坛报》发表署名文章《为了人民当家作主》,积极宣介全过程人民民主理念和中国民主发展成就,深刻揭批美自身民主劣迹及借举办所谓“民主峰会”搞分裂对抗的反民主行径。该报网站同步全文刊登。

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2021/12/17

Ambasador Zjednoczonego Królestwa Wielkiej Brytanii i Irlandii odwiedza Kraków

W godzinach porannych Pani Ambasador wzięła udział w wydarzeniach upamiętniających poległych żołnierzy Wspólnoty Brytyjskiej. Uroczystości poświęcone pamięci żołnierzy Wspólnoty Brytyjskiej poległych na frontach wszystkich wojen i konfliktów zbrojnych obchodzone są co roku w listopadzie na całym świecie. W Krakowie mają miejsce na cmentarzu Rakowickim przy kwaterach żołnierzy brytyjskich. Podczas tegorocznych obchodów władze miasta reprezentowała Dyrektor Kancelarii Prezydenta Anna Frankiewicz.

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2021/12/17

National Day Anniversary of the election of the King of Bhutan

Bhutan, country of south-central Asia, located on the eastern ridges of the Himalayas. Historically a remote kingdom, Bhutan became less isolated in the second half of the 20th century, and consequently the pace of change began to accelerate. With improvements in transportation, by the early 21st century a trip from the Indian border to the Bhutanese capital, Thimphu, that once took six days by mule could be made in just a few hours by car along a winding mountain road from the border town of Phuntsholing. The governmental structure also changed radically. Reforms initiated by King Jigme Dorji Wangchuk (reigned 1952–72) in the 1950s and ’60s led to a shift away from absolute monarchy in the 1990s and toward the institution of multiparty parliamentary democracy in 2008. The economic core of Bhutan lies in the fertile valleys of the Lesser Himalayas, which are separated from one another by a series of high and complex interconnecting ridges extending across the country from north to south. The political nucleus of Bhutan is centred in the Paro and Thimphu valleys in the Lesser Himalayan region. Its location between the Assam-Bengal Plain of India to the south and the Plateau of Tibet of southwestern China to the north gives the country considerable geopolitical significance. Land Bhutan’s northern and western boundary with the Tibet Autonomous Region (part of China), although undefined, generally follows the crest of the Great Himalayas. In the Duars Plain to the south of the Himalayan range lies Bhutan’s boundary with the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. Bhutan borders the Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh to the east and Sikkim to the southwest. Relief Physically, Bhutan may be divided into three regions from north to south: the Great Himalayas, the Lesser Himalayas, and the Duars Plain. The Great Himalayas The northern part of Bhutan lies within the Great Himalayas; the snowcapped peaks in this region reach an elevation of more than 24,000 feet (7,300 metres). High valleys occur at elevations of 12,000 to 18,000 feet (3,700 to 5,500 metres), running down from the great northern glaciers. Alpine pastures on the high ranges are used for grazing yaks in the summer months. To the north of the Great Himalayas are several “marginal” mountains of the Plateau of Tibet that form the principal watershed between the northward- and the southward-flowing rivers. A dry climate is characteristic of the Great Himalayan region. Until about 1960 the tempo of life in the Great Himalayas continued much as it had for centuries. Long relatively undisturbed in their ways, Bhutanese traders carried cloth, spices, and grains across the mountain passes into Tibet and brought back salt, wool, and sometimes herds of yaks. The absorption of Tibet by China, however, necessarily pushed Bhutan toward ending its isolation; the event brought major changes to the way of living in those high regions, as military precautions were taken to guard against the potential danger of a Chinese incursion from Tibet. The Lesser Himalayas Spurs from the Great Himalayas radiate southward, forming the ranges of the Lesser Himalayas (also called Inner Himalayas). The north-south ranges of the Lesser Himalayas constitute watersheds between the principal rivers of Bhutan. Differences in elevation and the degree of exposure to moist southwest monsoon winds determine the prevailing vegetation, which ranges from dense forest on the rain-swept windward slopes to alpine vegetation at higher elevations. Several fertile valleys of central Bhutan are in the Lesser Himalayas at elevations varying from 5,000 to 9,000 feet (1,500 to 2,700 metres). These valleys, notably the Paro, Punakha, Thimphu, and Ha, are relatively broad and flat, receive moderate rainfall (from 40 to 50 inches [about 1,000 to 1,270 mm] or less a year), and are fairly well populated and cultivated. The Duars Plain South of the Lesser Himalayas and the foothills lies the narrow Duars Plain, which forms a strip 8 to 10 miles (12 to 16 km) wide along the southern border of Bhutan. The Himalayan ranges rise sharply and abruptly from this plain, which constitutes a gateway to the strategic mountain passes (known as dwars or dooars) that lead into the fertile valleys of the Lesser Himalayas. Subject to abundant rainfall (200 to 300 inches [5,100 to 7,600 mm] a year), the entire Duars tract is hot and steamy and is covered with dense semitropical forest and undergrowth. The northern part of the Duars, immediately bordering the mountains, consists of a rugged, irregular, and sloping surface. At the foot of the mountains, small villages are found in forest clearings, but most of the area is thickly covered with vegetation inhabited by an array of large wild animals. The southern part of the Duars, bordering India, is mostly covered with savanna (grassy parkland) and bamboo jungle. In many areas the savannas have been cleared for rice cultivation. The principal trade routes between central Bhutan and India follow the valleys of the main rivers. Drainage Bhutan’s mountainous territory is dissected by numerous rivers. The main rivers from west to east are the Torsa (Amo), Wong (Raidak), Sankosh (Mo), and Manas. All the rivers flow southward from the Great Himalayas and join the Brahmaputra River in India. Climate of Bhutan Bhutan’s climate is perhaps more diverse than that of any other similarly sized area in the world. The climate changes with elevation, producing striking meteorologic contrasts, and differing exposures to sunlight and moisture-laden winds result in complex local variations. Three principal climatic regions can be distinguished: the hot, humid, subtropical tract of the Duars Plain and its adjacent foothills; the cooler region of the Lesser Himalayas; and the alpine tundra region of the Great Himalayas. A temperate climate occurs only in the central mountain valleys. For instance, in Thimphu, in the country’s west-central region, in January, high temperatures are usually in the low 50s F (about 12 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-30s F (about 2 °C); in July, Thimphu’s temperatures are somewhat warmer, typically rising to the mid-60s F (about 19 °C) and dropping to the mid-50s F (about 13 °C). The remainder of the country experiences either extreme heat, as in the Duars, or extreme cold, as in the north. More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Bhutan

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2021/12/17

Independence Day of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan, also spelled Kazakstan, officially Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakh Qazaqstan Respublikasï, country of Central Asia. It is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea, and Turkmenistan; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia and the ninth largest in the world. Between its most distant points, Kazakhstan measures about 1,820 miles (2,930 kilometres) east to west and 960 miles north to south. While Kazakhstan was not considered by authorities in the former Soviet Union to be a part of Central Asia, it does have physical and cultural geographic characteristics similar to those of the other Central Asian countries. The capital is Nur-Sultan (formerly Astana, Aqmola, and Tselinograd), in the north-central part of the country. Kazakhstan, formerly a constituent (union) republic of the U.S.S.R., declared independence on December 16, 1991. Kazakhstan’s great mineral resources and arable lands have long aroused the envy of outsiders, and the resulting exploitation has generated environmental and political problems. The forced settlement of the nomadic Kazakhs in the Soviet period, combined with large-scale Slavic in-migration, strikingly altered the Kazakh way of life and led to considerable settlement and urbanization in Kazakhstan. The Kazakhs’ traditional customs uneasily coexist alongside incursions of the modern world. Land - Relief Lowlands make up one-third of Kazakhstan’s huge expanse, hilly plateaus and plains account for nearly half, and low mountainous regions about one-fifth. Kazakhstan’s highest point, Mount Khan-Tengri (Han-t’eng-ko-li Peak) at 22,949 feet (6,995 metres), in the Tien Shan range on the border between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and China, contrasts with the flat or rolling terrain of most of the republic. The western and southwestern parts of the republic are dominated by the low-lying Caspian Depression, which at its lowest point lies some 95 feet below sea level. South of the Caspian Depression are the Ustyurt Plateau and the Tupqaraghan (formerly Mangyshlak) Peninsula jutting into the Caspian Sea. Vast amounts of sand form the Greater Barsuki and Aral Karakum deserts near the Aral Sea, the broad Betpaqdala Desert of the interior, and the Muyunkum and Kyzylkum deserts in the south. Most of these desert regions support slight vegetative cover fed by subterranean groundwater. Depressions filled by salt lakes whose water has largely evaporated dot the undulating uplands of central Kazakhstan. In the north the mountains reach about 5,000 feet, and there are similar high areas among the Ulutau Mountains in the west and the Chingiz-Tau Range in the east. In the east and southeast, massifs (enormous blocks of crystalline rock) are furrowed by valleys. The Altai mountain complex to the east sends three ridges into the republic, and, farther south, the Tarbagatay Range is an offshoot of the Naryn-Kolbin complex. Another range, the Dzungarian Alatau, penetrates the country to the south of the depression containing Lake Balkhash. The Tien Shan peaks rise along the southern frontier with Kyrgyzstan. Drainage Kazakhstan’s east and southeast possess extensive watercourses: most of the country’s 7,000 streams form part of the inland drainage systems of the Aral and Caspian seas and Lakes Balkhash and Tengiz. The major exceptions are the great Irtysh, Ishim (Esil), and Tobol rivers, which run northwest from the highlands in the southeast and, crossing Russia, ultimately drain into Arctic waters. In the west the major stream, the Ural (Kazakh: Zhayyq) River, flows into the Caspian Sea. In the south the waters of the once-mighty Syr Darya have, since the late 1970s, scarcely reached the Aral Sea at all. The torrent of the Irtysh River pours some 988 billion cubic feet (28 billion cubic metres) of water annually into the vast West Siberian catchment area. In the late 1970s Soviet authorities developed extensive plans to tap the Irtysh River for use in irrigating the arid expanses of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, but the scheme was killed in 1986 because of the large investment required and concern for the project’s possible adverse ecological consequences. This left southern and western Kazakhstan, as before, greatly in need of additional water resources. Kazakhstan also suffers from the disastrous depletion and the contamination (by pesticides and chemical fertilizers) of the Syr Darya flow, on which the republic depends greatly for crop irrigation. The Caspian Sea, the largest inland body of water in the world, forms Kazakhstan’s border for 1,450 miles of its coastline. Other large bodies of water, all in the eastern half of the country, include Lakes Balkhash, Zaysan, Alaköl, Tengiz, and Seletytengiz (Siletiteniz). Kazakhstan also wraps around the entire northern half of the shrinking Aral Sea, which underwent terrible decline during the second half of the 20th century: as freshwater inflow was diverted for agriculture, the salinity of the sea increased sharply, and the receding shores became the source of salty dust and polluted deposits that ruined the surrounding lands for animal, plant, or human use. Climate Kazakhstan’s climate is sharply continental, and hot summers alternate with equally extreme winters, especially in the plains and valleys. Temperatures fluctuate widely, with great variations between subregions. Average January temperatures in northern and central regions range from −2 to 3 °F (−19 to −16 °C); in the south, temperatures are milder, ranging from 23 to 29 °F (−5 to −1.4 °C). Average July temperatures in the north reach 68 °F (20 °C), but in the south they rise to 84 °F (29 °C). Temperature extremes of −49 °F (−45 °C) and 113 °F (45 °C) have been recorded. Light precipitation falls, ranging from 8 to 12 inches (200 to 300 millimetres) annually in the northern and central regions to 16 or 20 inches in the southern mountain valleys. Soils Very fertile soils characterize the lands from far northern Kazakhstan down to the more infertile, alkaline soils of the middle and southern areas. The vast stretches of arable land in the northern plains are the most intensely cultivated and productive. Other cultivated areas fringe the mountains in the south and east; irrigation and reclamation, when feasible, extend along river valleys into the deserts. Nuclear bomb testing conducted during the Soviet period near Semey (Semipalatinsk) contaminated the soils in the vicinity. Plant and animal life The vegetation on plains and deserts includes wormwood and tamarisk, with feather grass on drier plains. Kazakhstan has very little wooded area, amounting to only about 3 percent of the territory. Many animals, including antelope and elk, inhabit the plains. The wolf, bear, and snow leopard, as well as the commercially important ermine and sable, are found in the hills. Fishermen take sturgeon, herring, and roach from the Caspian Sea. In parts of northeastern and southwestern Kazakhstan, where commercial fishing collapsed as a result of industrial and agricultural pollution, efforts to revive fish populations have shown some success. In 2008 Kazakhstan’s Naurzum and Korgalzhyn state nature reserves were named a UNESCO World Heritage site; both are important habitats for migrating birds, as well as for many other animal species. People of Kazakhstan - Ethnic groups Fewer than one-fifth of the more than eight million ethnic Kazakhs live outside Kazakhstan, mainly in Uzbekistan and Russia. During the 19th century about 400,000 Russians flooded into Kazakhstan, and these were supplemented by about 1,000,000 Slavs, Germans, Jews, and others who immigrated to the region during the first third of the 20th century. The immigrants crowded Kazakhs off the best pastures and watered lands, rendering many tribes destitute. Another large influx of Slavs occurred from 1954 to 1956 as a result of the Virgin and Idle Lands project, initiated by the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev, himself a Slav. This project drew thousands of Russians and Ukrainians into the rich agricultural lands of northern Kazakhstan. By 1989, however, Kazakhs slightly outnumbered Russians. In the early years of independence, significant numbers of ethnic Russians in Kazakhstan emigrated to Russia. This emigration, along with a return to the country of ethnic Kazakhs, changed the demographic makeup of Kazakhstan: by the mid-1990s the Kazakh proportion was approaching half the total population, while that for the Russians was closer to one-third. The trend persisted into the 21st century, as the Kazakh population neared two-thirds of the country’s total population while the Russian community represented just over one-fifth. Other ethnic groups in Kazakhstan include Uzbeks, Uighurs, and Tajiks, along with Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Koreans. The urban areas of Kazakhstan are still home to more Slavs than Kazakhs. Kazakhs constitute about half the inhabitants of Almaty, the country’s largest city and, until 1997, its capital. About three-fifths of Kazakh families live in rural areas. Urbanization in Kazakhstan involves much more immigration of foreigners than movement of Kazakhs from the countryside into the cities. More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Kazakhstan    

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2021/12/16

National holiday of the Kingdom of Bahrain

Bahrain, small Arab state situated in a bay on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf. It is an archipelago consisting of Bahrain Island and some 30 smaller islands. Its name is from the Arabic term al-baḥrayn, meaning “two seas.” Located in one of the world’s chief oil-producing regions, Bahrain itself has only small stores of petroleum. Instead, its economy has long relied on processing crude oil from neighbouring countries, and more recently the financial, commercial services, and communications sectors have grown markedly, as has tourism. The country’s chief city, port, and capital, Manama (Al-Manāmah), is located on the northeastern tip of Bahrain Island. A strikingly modern city, Manama is relaxed and cosmopolitan and is a favourite destination for visitors from neighbouring Saudi Arabia; on weekends, crowds of Saudis converge on the city to enjoy its restaurants and bars. Yet the people of Bahrain remain conservative in their lifeways. This sentiment is enshrined in the country’s constitution, which affirms that “the family is the cornerstone of society, the strength of which lies in religion, ethics, and patriotism.” Bahrain is renowned for its verdant groves of date palms; since ancient times it has been an entrepôt for trade and a source of natural resources for the surrounding area. Bahrain Island is widely believed to be the site of the ancient kingdom of Dilmun, a commercial centre that traded with ancient Sumer. It has been settled and colonized by various groups, including the Khalīfah family (Āl Khalīfah), a native Arab dynasty that has ruled Bahrain since the late 18th century. Recognizing the islands’ strategic importance, the Khalīfah have opened Bahrain’s port facilities to the naval fleets of foreign countries, including the United States. Land Bahrain’s total land area is slightly greater than that of Singapore. Saudi Arabia lies to the west across the Gulf of Bahrain, while the Qatar peninsula lies to the east. The King Fahd Causeway, 15 miles (24 km) long, links Bahrain to Saudi Arabia. The state consists of two separate groups of islands, which together extend about 30 miles (50 km) from north to south and 10 miles (16 km) from east to west. The island of Bahrain accounts for seven-eighths of the country’s total land area and is surrounded by smaller islands. Two of these—Al-Muḥarraq and Sitrah, both to the northeast—are joined to Bahrain Island by causeways that have facilitated residential and industrial development; other islands in the group are Nabī Ṣāliḥ, Al-Muḥammadiyyah (Umm al-Ṣabbān), Umm al-Naʿsān (linked by the King Fahd Causeway), and Jiddah. The second group consists of the Ḥawār Islands, which are situated near the coast of Qatar, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Bahrain Island; a dispute with Qatar over ownership of the islands was resolved in 2001, when the International Court of Justice awarded them to Bahrain. Small and rocky, they are inhabited by only a few fishermen and quarry workers, but they are believed to hold petroleum and natural gas reserves. Relief and drainage While the small islands in both groups are rocky and low-lying, rising only a few feet above sea level, the main island is more varied in appearance. Geologically, the island consists of gently folded layers of sedimentary rocks: limestones, sandstones, and marls (loose clay, sand, or silt) formed during the Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene periods (i.e., from about 145 to 2.6 million years ago). The central region is rocky and barren, rising to 440 feet (134 metres) above sea level at Al-Dukhān Hill (Jabal Al-Dukhān), the country’s highest point. The southern and western lowlands consist of a bleak sandy plain with some salt marshes, while the northern and northwestern coasts afford a striking contrast, forming a narrow belt of date palms and vegetable gardens irrigated from prolific springs and wells that tap artesian water. The source of this water is precipitation on the western mountains of Saudi Arabia. The abundance of fresh water has provided Bahrain with fertile land, from which it gained importance historically as a harbour and trading centre in the Persian Gulf. Economic developments and population growth have outstripped the available artesian water in the country, and some three-fifths of the water used now comes from seawater desalinization plants powered by natural gas. Climate Summer in Bahrain is unpleasant, as high temperatures frequently coincide with high humidity. Midday temperatures from May to October exceed 90 °F (32 °C), often reaching 95 °F (35 °C) or higher; summer nights are sultry and humid. Winters are cooler and more pleasant, with mean temperatures from December to March dipping to 70 °F (21 °C). Rainfall is confined to the winter months and averages only 3 inches (75 mm) per year, but this may vary from almost nothing to double that amount. On average, rain falls only about 10 days a year. Sunshine is abundant year-round. The predominant wind is the damp, northwesterly shamāl; the qaws, a hot, dry south wind, is less frequent and brings sand, dust, and low humidity. Plant and animal life Some 200 different species of desert plants grow in the bare, arid portions of the archipelago, while the irrigated and cultivated areas of the islands support fruit trees, fodder crops, and vegetables. The variety of animals is limited by the desert conditions. Gazelle and hares are not yet extinct, and lizards and jerboas (desert rodents) are common; the mongoose—probably imported from India—is found in the irrigated areas. Birdlife is sparse except in spring and autumn, when many varieties of migratory birds rest temporarily in Bahrain while traveling to and from higher temperate latitudes. People - Ethnic groups Roughly half of the population is Arab, and most inhabitants are native-born Bahrainis, but some are Palestinians, Omanis, or Saudis. Foreign-born inhabitants, constituting about half of the population, are mostly from Iran, India, Pakistan, Britain, and the United States. About three-fifths of the labour force is foreign-born. Languages Arabic is the official language of Bahrain. English is widely used, however, and is a compulsory second language at all schools. Persian is also common, although it is spoken mostly in the home. A number of other languages are spoken among expatriates in Bahrain, including Urdu, Hindi, and Tagalog. More … Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Bahrain  

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2021/12/16

Zimowe wydaniem magazynu Kizuna

Zachęcamy do zapoznania się z zimowym wydaniem magazynu Kizuna, oficjalnej publikacji rządu japońskiego. W tym numerze znaleźć można informacje o premierze Japonii Fumio Kishidzie, jak również ciekawostki o pięknie japońskiej zimy.

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2021/12/14