Archiwum

The Proclamation of Independence of Barbados

Barbados, island country in the southeastern Caribbean Sea, situated about 100 miles (160 km) east of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Roughly triangular in shape, the island measures some 20 miles (32 km) from northwest to southeast and about 15 miles (25 km) from east to west at its widest point. The capital and largest town is Bridgetown, which is also the main seaport. The geographic position of Barbados has profoundly influenced the island’s history and culture and aspects of its economic life. Barbados is not part of the nearby archipelago of the Lesser Antilles, although it is usually grouped with it. The island is of different geologic formation; it is less mountainous and has less variety in plant and animal life. As the first Caribbean landfall from Europe and Africa, Barbados has functioned since the late 17th century as a major link between western Europe (mainly Great Britain), eastern Caribbean territories, and parts of the South American mainland. The island was a British possession without interruption from the 17th century to 1966, when it attained independence. Because of its long association with Britain, the culture of Barbados is probably more British than is that of any other Caribbean island, though elements of the African culture of the majority population have been prominent. Since independence, cultural nationalism has been fostered as part of the process of nation-building. Land The rocks underlying Barbados consist of sedimentary deposits, including thick shales, clays, sands, and conglomerates, laid down approximately 70 million years ago. Above these rocks are chalky deposits, which were capped with coral before the island rose to the surface. A layer of coral up to 300 feet (90 metres) thick covers the island, except in the northeast physiographic region known as the Scotland District, which covers about 15 percent of the area, where erosion has removed the coral cover. The government has adopted a conservation plan to prevent further erosion. Relief, drainage, and soils Mount Hillaby, the highest point in Barbados, rises to 1,102 feet (336 metres) in the north-central part of the island. To the west the land drops down to the sea in a series of terraces. East from Mount Hillaby, the land declines sharply to the rugged upland of the Scotland District. Southward, the highlands descend steeply to the broad St. Georges Valley; between the valley and the sea the land rises to 400 feet (120 metres) to form Christ Church Ridge. Coral reefs surround most of the island. Sewerage systems were installed in the late 20th century to address the threat to the reefs from runoff of fertilizers and untreated waste. There are no significant rivers or lakes and only a few streams, springs, and ponds. Rainwater percolates quickly through the underlying coralline limestone cap, draining into underground streams, which are the main source of the domestic water supply. A desalination plant provides additional fresh water. Barbados has mainly residual soils. They are clayey and rich in lime and phosphates. Soil type varies with elevation; thin black soils occur on the coastal plains, and more-fertile yellow-brown or red soils are usually found in the highest parts of the coral limestone. Climate of Barbados The climate of Barbados is generally pleasant. The temperature does not usually rise above the mid-80s F (about 30 °C) or fall below the low 70s F (about 22 °C). There are two seasons: the dry season, from early December to May, and the wet season, which lasts for the rest of the year. Average rainfall is about 60 inches (1,525 mm) annually, but, despite the small size of the island, rainfall varies, rising from the low-lying coastal areas to the high central district. Barbados lies in the southern border of the Caribbean hurricane (tropical cyclone) zone, and hurricanes have caused great devastation, notably in 1780, 1831, 1898, and 1955. Plant and animal life Very little of the original vegetation remains on Barbados; the pale green of cultivated sugarcane has become the characteristic colour of the landscape. Tropical trees, including poinciana, mahogany, frangipani, and cabbage palm, are widespread, and flowering shrubs adorn parks and gardens. The few wild animals, such as monkeys, hares, and mongooses, are considered pests by farmers. Birds include doves, hummingbirds, sparrows, egrets, and yellow breasts. Marine life includes flying fish, sprats, green dolphins, kingfish, barracudas, mackerels, and parrot fish. People - Ethnic groups and languages People of African descent and of mixed African-European descent make up more than nine-tenths of the population. A small fraction of the population is of European (mainly British) descent, and there is an even smaller number of inhabitants who originated from the Indian subcontinent. There are small groups of Syrians, Lebanese, and Chinese. There is also a sizable expatriate community—primarily from the United States and Great Britain—made up of international civil servants, businesspersons, and retirees. English is the official language, and a nonstandard English called Bajan is also spoken. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/Barbados

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2022/11/30

Hai #SahabatKemlu,

Dalam upaya membangun citra Indonesia di wilayah kerja, Indonesian Consulate General in Davao City telah melakukan promosi seni budaya Indonesia dengan menampilkan permainan musik Angklung yang dilaksanakan di Abreeza Mall, Davao City

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2022/11/28

Umowa wykonawcza o japońsko – amerykańskiej współpracy przy załogowej księżycowej stacji kosmicznej Gateway

18 listopada 2022 roku Minister Edukacji, Kultury, Sportu, Nauki i Technologii (MEXT) Nagaoka Keiko spotkała się z Administratorem NASA Billem Nelsonem. Podczas spotkania podpisano umowę wykonawczą o japońsko – amerykańskiej współpracy przy załogowej księżycowej stacji kosmicznej Gateway. Minister Nagaoka powiedziała, że MEXT będzie dalej rozwijało współpracę międzynarodową, na czele z projektami ISS i Artemis, tak, aby w drugiej połowie lat 2020 japoński astronauta mógł stanąć na Księżycu jako pierwszy astronauta spoza USA.

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2022/11/28

Veleposlanik Vidošević na komemoraciji u prigodi obnove groblja iz Prvog svjetskog rata u Chrzanowu

U malopoljskom vojvodstvu u gradu Chrzanowu u utorak 08. studenog održana je komemoracija na obnovljenom groblju iz Prvog svjetskog rata na kojem su između ostalih pokopani i hrvatski vojnici. Bili su to pripadnici 48. pješačke pukovnije i 4. bosansko-hercegovačke pješačke pukovnije iz Mostara u sastavu austro-ugarskih oružanih snaga. Veleposlanik Tomislav Vidošević u pratnji počasnog konzula sa sjedištem u Krakovu i nadležnošću za malopoljsko, podkarpatsko i šlesko vojvodstvo Pawelom Wlodarczykom položio je cvijeće i zapalio svijeću pred središnjim spomenikom.

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2022/11/28

Wirtualna oferta austriackich instytucji kulturalnych

Portal Kultur Online International zaprasza do skorzystania ze stale aktualizowanej, wirtualnej oferty austriackich instytucji kulturalnych. Strona jest dostępna w j. niemieckim i angielskim.

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2022/11/28

Spotkanie z delegacją z Azerbejdżanu

Na początku listopada na Uniwersytecie Warszawskim odbyło się spotkanie dotyczące współpracy uczelni z azerbejdżańskimi instytucjami naukowymi i publicznymi. Podczas spotkania omówiono kwestie dotyczące działalności Centrum Studiów Azerbejdżańskich na Wydziale Orientalistycznym UW oraz perspektywy dalszej współpracy badawczej.

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2022/11/28

Independence Day of the Democratic Republic of East Timor

East Timor, island country in the eastern Lesser Sunda Islands, at the southern extreme of the Malay Archipelago. It occupies the eastern half of the island of Timor, the small nearby islands of Atauro (Kambing) and Jaco, and the enclave of Ambeno, including the town of Pante Makasar, on the northwestern coast of Timor. Dili is the capital and largest city. Geography East Timor is bounded by the Timor Sea to the southeast, the Wetar Strait to the north, the Ombai Strait to the northwest, and western Timor (part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara) to the southwest. The eastern part of Timor island is rugged, with the mountains rising to 9,721 feet (2,963 metres) at Mount Tatamailau (Tata Mailau) in the centre of a high plateau. The area has a dry tropical climate and moderate rainfall. Hilly areas are covered with sandalwood. Scrub and grass grow in the lowlands, together with coconut palms and eucalyptus trees. There are hot springs and numerous mountain streams. Wildlife includes the cuscus (a species of marsupial), monkeys, deer, civet cats, snakes, and crocodiles. Most of the people are of Papuan, Malayan, and Polynesian origin and are predominantly Christian. About 40 different Papuan and Malayan languages or dialects are spoken, dominated by Tetum. Portuguese is spoken by a small fraction of the population, but it is one of the country’s two official languages, the other being Tetum; Indonesian and English are considered to be “working” languages. Nearly all of the population is Roman Catholic, with tiny Protestant and Muslim minorities. Some vestiges of traditional religious beliefs are also practiced in conjunction with Catholicism. About seven-tenths of the population is rural. Of those classified as urban, roughly half live in Dili. Hydrocarbon production (notably from offshore natural gas deposits) is the most important component of East Timor’s economy in terms of value. Marble quarrying for export is also important. Agriculture, long the mainstay of the economy, still employs the great bulk of the working population; chief products include corn (maize), rice, cassava, sweet potatoes, dried beans, coconuts, and coffee. Manufacturing of textiles, garments, handicrafts, and processed coffee are important. Crafts include pottery, wood and ivory carving, plaiting, coir production, and basket making. Roads running parallel to the northeastern coast link Maubara, Manatuto, Tutuala, and Dili. About half of the roads are paved. The Ambeno area has valuable sandalwood forests, coconut groves, and rice plantations. Its chief town, Pante Makasar, is a port and has an airport. The hilly offshore island of Atauro, which also has an airport, has a population occupied mainly with fishing. The currency is the U.S. dollar. History The Portuguese first settled on Timor in 1520, and the Spanish arrived in 1522. The Dutch took possession of the western portion of the island in 1613. The British governed the island in 1812–15. The Dutch and the Portuguese fought for supremacy over Timor, and Portuguese sovereignty over the island’s eastern half was settled by treaties in 1860 and 1893, although the latter became effective only in 1914. Japanese forces occupied Timor during World War II. East Timor province, including the Ambeno enclave, thereafter remained in Portuguese possession until 1975, when one of the major political parties there, Fretilin (Frente Revolucionária do Timor-Leste Independente [Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor]), gained control of much of the territory and in November declared its independence as the Democratic Republic of East Timor. Early in December Indonesian forces invaded and occupied the area, and in 1976 Indonesia declared it to be an integral part of that country as the province of East Timor (Timor Timur). Over the next two decades, tens of thousands of East Timorese died (some observers claim as many as 200,000 perished) resisting the Indonesian occupation and annexation or as a result of famine and disease. In response to mounting international pressure, the Indonesian government authorized a referendum there for August 30, 1999, to determine the future of East Timor. Almost four-fifths of the voters supported independence, and the Indonesian parliament rescinded Indonesia’s annexation of the territory. East Timor was returned to its preannexation status of independence but as a non-self-governing territory under UN supervision. However, the transfer of power was accompanied by violence perpetrated by anti-independence militants. Hundreds of people were killed, and thousands fled to the western half of the island; refugees subsequently began returning home. In April 2002 Xanana Gusmão—leader of the National Council of Timorese Resistance (Conselho Nacional de Resistência Timorense; CNRT), one of the former opposition groups—was elected East Timor’s first president. The territory achieved full status as a sovereign state shortly thereafter. Prime Minister José Ramos-Horta—who had been a corecipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Peace—was elected president in May 2007 and succeeded Gusmão. Tensions within the country remained high, however, as indicated by the continued presence of a UN security mission in the country. The situation only worsened after Ramos-Horta swore in Gusmão as prime minister of a coalition government even though the CNRT—renamed, with the same acronym, the National Congress for the Reconstruction of Timor (Congresso Nacional de Reconstrução do Timor)—finished second to Fretilin in the July 2007 parliamentary elections. United Nations Peacekeeping Forces from Thailand at a ceremony marking the transfer of control of East Timor (Timor-Leste) to East Timorese forces in Los Palos, East Timor, July 23, 2002. In February 2008 President Ramos-Horta was seriously injured when he was shot by militant forces in an attempted assassination. He subsequently recovered and served the remainder of his term. Ramos-Horta was unsuccessful in his bid for a second presidential term in 2012, however, and he was succeeded in office by the country’s former army chief, Taur Matan Ruak. Gusmão’s government weathered the political crisis of 2007–08 and began efforts to improve East Timor’s economy. The country did achieve some significant economic growth during Gusmão’s first term as prime minister, but much of that growth was tied to the heavy dependence on hydrocarbon production. A large proportion of the population still lived in deep poverty, and Gusmão’s government was criticized for having done little to improve conditions for those citizens. East Timor applied for membership in ASEAN in 2011. When Indonesia’s permanent representative to ASEAN intimated in May 2016 that East Timor would become a member of the organization in 2017, it appeared as if the country’s long wait to join ASEAN was almost over. However, when the Joint Communiqué of ASEAN’s foreign ministers’ meeting was issued in July, it only “looked forward” to “continued discussion” that would take into consideration the results of several feasibility studies, thus leaving the issue of East Timor’s membership unresolved. The CNRT won a plurality (but not a majority) of seats in the 2012 legislative elections, and Gusmão was again able to form a coalition government. One notable development during his second administration was the departure of the last members of the UN security mission by early 2013. In January 2014 Gusmão announced his intention to step down as prime minister. He delayed that action until mid-February 2015, when he was succeeded by Rui Maria de Araújo of Fretilin, who appointed Gusmão to the post of minister for planning and strategic investment. With the support of Gusmão and the CNRT, Fretilin’s candidate in the March 2017 presidential election, Francisco Guterres, captured more than 57 percent of the ballots in the first round of voting to exceed the 50 percent threshold necessary to preclude a runoff, and he became the country’s fourth president. A member of the “75 Generation” of resistance fighters who led the struggle for independence, Guterres was better known by his nom de guerre, Lú-Olo. He had run for the presidency unsuccessfully twice before. This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/East-Timor

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2022/11/28

Independence Day of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania

Mauritania, country on the Atlantic coast of Africa. Mauritania forms a geographic and cultural bridge between the North African Maghrib (a region that also includes Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) and the westernmost portion of Sub-Saharan Africa. Culturally it forms a transitional zone between the Arab-Amazigh (Berber) populations of North Africa and the African peoples in the region to the south of the Tropic of Cancer known as the Sudan (a name derived from the Arabic bilād al-sūdān, “land of the Blacks”). Much of Mauritania encompasses part of the Sahara desert, and, until the drought conditions that affected most of that zone of Africa in the 1970s, a large proportion of the population was nomadic. The country’s mineral wealth includes large reserves of iron ore, copper, and gypsum, all of which are now being exploited, as well as some oil resources. Mauritania was administered as a French colony during the first half of the 20th century and became independent on November 28, 1960. By the terms of the constitution, Islam is the official state religion, but the republic guarantees freedom of conscience and religious liberty to all. Arabic is the official language; Fula, Soninke, and Wolof are national languages. The capital, Nouakchott, is located in the southwestern part of the country. Land Mauritania is bounded to the northwest by Western Sahara (formerly the Spanish Sahara), to the northeast by Algeria, to the east and southeast by Mali, and to the southwest by Senegal. Its Atlantic Ocean coastline, to the west, extends for 435 miles (700 km) from the delta of the Sénégal River northward to Cape Nouâdhibou (Cape Blanco) Peninsula. Relief Both Mauritania’s relief and its drainage are influenced by the aridity that characterizes the greater part of the country. The impression of immensity given by the landscape is reinforced by its flatness. The coastal plains are lower than 150 feet (45 metres), while the higher plains of the interior vary from 600 to 750 feet (180 to 230 metres). The interior plains form a plateau of which the culminating heights, occurring at different levels, form many tablelands joined to one another by very long, gentle slopes of about 2°. The topography is relieved by vestiges of cliffs (generally cuestas); by sloping plains that terminate at one end of the slope with a steep cliff or faulted scarp, which may reach heights of 900 feet (275 metres); or by inselbergs (steep-sided residual hills), of which the highest is Mount Ijill at 3,002 feet (915 metres), an enormous block of hematite. Mauritania may be divided into three principal geologic zones. The first of these, located in the north and northwest, consists of underlying Precambrian rock (about 2.7 billion years old), which emerges to form not only the backbone of northern Mauritania’s Reguibat ridge region but also the Akjoujt rock series that forms a vast peneplain (a land surface worn down by erosion to a nearly flat plain) studded with inselbergs. The second zone is located partly in the extreme north but mostly in the centre and east. In the north it consists of primary sandstone, which covers the Tindouf Syncline (a fold in the rocks in which the strata dip inward from both sides toward the axis); in the centre is the vast synclinal basin of Taoudeni, bounded by the Adrar, Tagant, and ʿAçâba (Assaba) plateaus. The basin is scarcely indented to the south by the Hodh Depression, with the Affollé Anticline (a fold in which the rock strata incline downward on both sides from a central axis) lying in its centre. The third zone is formed by the Senegalese-Mauritanian sedimentary basin, which includes coastal Mauritania and the lower Sénégal River valley of the southwest. Drainage The drainage system is characterized by a lack of pattern. Normal drainage is limited to inland southwestern Mauritania, where tributaries of the Sénégal River, which forms the frontier between Mauritania and Senegal, flow southward and are subject to ephemeral flooding in summer. In the greater part of the country, however, the plateaus are cut into by wadis (dry riverbeds), where the rare floods that occur dissipate their waters into a few permanent drainage basins called guelt (singular guelta). In the wastes of the north and the east, precipitation is so rare and slight that there is practically no runoff. Soils As a result of the arid phases it underwent during the Quaternary period (2.6 million years ago to the present), the Mauritanian landscape in general presents three different aspects; these are represented by skeletal soils, regs (desert surfaces consisting of small, rounded, tightly packed pebbles), and dunes. Skeletal soils are formed where outcrops of the underlying rock have been slightly weathered or where they have been covered with a patina or chalky crust. To these may be added the saline soils of the salt flats, formed from the caking of gypsum or of salt derived from the evaporation of former lakes. The regs form plains often of great extent, carpeted with pebbles and boulders. The dunes cover about half of the total area of the country. They are stretched out, often for several dozen miles, in long ridges known as ʿalâb, which are sometimes 300 feet (90 metres) high; they frequently overlap with one another, forming a network of domes and basins. It is only in the country’s southern regions that the sands bear a brown type of soil. This soil is characteristic of the steppe (treeless plains) and contains 2 percent humus. It is only in the extreme southern part of the country that the iron-bearing lateritic soils of the Sudanic zone begin; in the lowest places occur patches of hydromorphic soils—that is to say, soils that have been altered by waterborne materials. Climate The climate owes its aridity to the northeastern trade winds, which blow constantly in the north and throughout most of the year in the rest of the country; the drying effect produced by these winds is increased by the harmattan, a hot, dry wind that blows from the northeast or east. With the exception of the few winter rains that occur as a result of climatic disturbances originating in the mid-latitude regions, precipitation essentially results from the rain-bearing southwesterly winds, which progressively extend throughout the southern half of the country at the height of the summer. The duration of the rainy season, as well as the total annual amount of precipitation, diminishes progressively from south to north. Thus, Sélibabi in the extreme south receives about 25 inches (635 mm) between June and October; Kiffa, farther north, receives about 14 inches (355 mm) between mid-June and mid-October; Tidjikdja receives about 7 inches (180 mm) between July and September; Atar receives 7 inches between mid-July and September; and Nouâdhibou (formerly Port-Étienne) receives between 1 and 2 inches (between 25 and 50 mm), usually between September and November. Because of opposition between the wet southwesterlies and the harmattan, precipitation often takes the form of stormy showers or squalls. The strength of the sun and the lack of haze in these latitudes result in high temperatures. In the summer months, afternoon temperatures may reach the low 100s F (high 30s C) in most areas, and daily highs in the 110s F (40s C) are not uncommon in the interior. The average temperature in the coldest month at most stations is in the high 60s F (low 20s C), while the average temperature during the hottest month rises to the mid-70s F (mid-20s C) at Nouakchott in September, to the high 70s F (mid-20s C) at Kiffa in May, to the low 80s F (high 20s C) at Atar in July, and to the mid-80s F (high 20s C) at Néma in May. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/Mauritania

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2022/11/28

Independence Day of the Republic of Albania

Albania, country in southern Europe, located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. The capital city is Tirana (Tiranë). Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë—often taken to mean “sons of eagles,” though it may well refer to “those associated with the shqip (i.e., Albanian) language”—and to their country as Shqipëria. They generally consider themselves to be descendants of the ancient Illyrians, who lived in central Europe and migrated southward to the territory of Albania at the beginning of the Bronze Age, about 2000 bce. They have lived in relative isolation and obscurity through most of their difficult history, in part because of the rugged terrain of their mountainous land but also because of a complex of historical, cultural, and social factors. Because of its location on the Adriatic and Ionian seas, Albania has long served as a bridgehead for various nations and empires seeking conquest abroad. In the 2nd century bce the Illyrians were conquered by the Romans, and from the end of the 4th century ce they were ruled by the Byzantine Empire. After suffering centuries of invasion by Visigoths, Huns, Bulgars, and Slavs, the Albanians were finally conquered by the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century. Ottoman rule cut off Albania from Western civilization for more than four centuries, but in the late 19th century the country began to remove itself from Ottoman influence and to rediscover old affinities and common interests with the West. Albania was declared independent in 1912, but the following year the demarcation of its boundaries by the great powers of Europe (Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia) assigned about half its territory and people to neighbouring states. Ruled as a monarchy between the World Wars, Albania emerged from the violence of World War II as a communist state that fiercely protected its sovereignty and in which almost all aspects of life were controlled by the ruling party. But with the collapse of other communist regimes beginning in 1989, new social forces and democratic political parties emerged in Albania. That shift reflected the country’s continuing orientation toward the West, and it accorded with the Albanian people’s long-standing appreciation of Western technology and cultural achievements—even while retaining their own ethnic identity, cultural heritage, and individuality. Land of Albania Albania is bounded by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the southeast and south, and the Adriatic and Ionian seas to the west and southwest, respectively. Albania’s immediate western neighbour, Italy, lies some 50 miles (80 km) across the Adriatic Sea. Albania has a length of about 210 miles (340 km) and a width of about 95 miles (150 km). Relief Albania has a mountainous geography. About three-fourths of its territory consists of mountains and hills with elevations of more than 650 feet (200 metres) above sea level; the remainder consists of coastal and alluvial lowlands. The North Albanian Alps, an extension of the Dinaric Alps, cover the northern part of the country. With elevations approaching 8,900 feet (2,700 metres), this is the most rugged part of the country. It is heavily forested and sparsely populated. In contrast to the Alps, the central mountain region, which extends north-south from the Drin River to the central Devoll and lower Osum rivers, is more densely populated and has a generally less rugged terrain. In the region’s easternmost portion, the imposing gypsum block of Albania’s highest peak, Mount Korab, rises to 9,030 feet (2,752 metres). South of the central mountain region is a series of northwest-southeast-trending mountain ranges with elevations up to 8,200 feet (2,500 metres). Composed of limestone rock, the ranges are separated by wide valleys. Unlike the Alps and the central region, which are covered with dense forests, the mountains of the southern region are either bare or have a thin covering of Mediterranean shrubs, oaks, and pines. They serve essentially as pasture for livestock. Stretching along the Adriatic coast over a distance of nearly 125 miles (200 km) and penetrating some 30 miles (50 km) into the interior are the low, fertile plains of western Albania. This is the most important agricultural and industrial region of the country—and the most densely populated. Drainage The longest river in Albania is the Drin (about 175 miles [280 km]), which originates in Kosovo. Other main rivers are the Seman, Shkumbin, and Vjosë, all of which drain the central part of the western plains. Albania also has many lakes, the most important of which are Lake Scutari (known in Albania as Lake Shkodër) in the northwest and Lakes Ohrid and Prespa along the eastern border. Climate of Albania Like other Mediterranean countries, Albania has characteristically warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Local climatic variation can occur, however, from one region to another. The western part of the country, which is under the influence of warm maritime air from the Adriatic and Ionian seas, has more-moderate temperatures than the rest of Albania. For example, Sarandë, on the southern coast, has average daily temperatures in the mid-70s F (about 24 °C) in July and in the upper 40s F (about 9 °C) in January. The eastern part of the country, on the other hand, is mainly under the influence of continental air and is characterized by mild summers (owing to the high elevations) and cold winters. Peshkopi, in the eastern mountains, has temperatures that average in the mid-70s F in July and in the lower 30s F (about −1 °C) in January. Rainfall in Albania is abundant, but it occurs unevenly across the country and throughout the year. Average annual precipitation varies from more than 100 inches (2,500 mm) in the North Albanian Alps to less than 30 inches (760 mm) along much of the eastern border. Some 40 percent of the annual precipitation falls in the winter. The southwestern part of the country suffers from summer droughts. Plant and animal life Only a small part of Albania is completely without vegetation. Forests cover about one-third of the total area. The coastal lowlands are characterized by Mediterranean shrubs such as laurel and myrtle. Above the lowlands, oak forests predominate. Above the oak belt, beginning at about 3,000 feet (900 metres), is a stretch of beeches and pines, and Alpine pastures lie above the timberline. Unrestricted hunting has taken a heavy toll of Albanian wildlife, but hunting laws were introduced and nature preserves were established in the 1990s to protect the remaining jackals, wolves, and foxes and the even rarer wild boars, bears, and chamois. The mild coastal climate attracts great numbers of migratory birds, such as swallows, storks, ducks, geese, and pelicans. Sardines and mullet are among the fishes found in Albanian coastal waters, and trout are found in the streams and lakes of the mountains. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/Albania    

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2022/11/28